Broker import program kpmg

Need help with picking memory for computer upgrade.

2023.05.29 14:46 M4dmaddy Need help with picking memory for computer upgrade.

Alright, I need to decide on what memory I should use, and reading advice online has my head spinning.
For reference, I have decided on the following motherboard and CPU:
My use cases:
I'm looking to get 64gb of ram as I found my use has started pushing the limits of my current 32 GB. There seems to be unanimous agreement that 4 sticks is more risky than 2 sticks for DDR5, and I can pretty much get 2x32gb cheaper than 4x16gb anyway so, 2x32gb it is.
So I have the following questions:
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2023.05.29 14:41 iurionu 🚀🎨 Introducing VINCI: Unlocking the Future of Creativity! 🎉🌟 $VINCI launching on 31.05 - BNB/PANCAKESWAP

🚀🎨 Introducing VINCI: Unlocking the Future of Creativity! 🎉🌟
Hey, fellow Redditors! 😄 Have you heard about VINCI, the groundbreaking project revolutionizing the creative industries? 🎉✨ Let me take you on an exciting journey through this incredible ecosystem! 🚀🌈
🌟 Staking Rewards: Power Up Your Holdings! 💪💰
One of the most enticing features of VINCI is its staking rewards program. By becoming a super staker, you not only earn regular rewards but also unlock additional incentives! 🎁💰 But here's the twist: in case of emergency unstaking, the lost rewards are redirected to a penalty pot. 🏦🔒 This pot is then distributed monthly among the super staker class, but the rewards come as unvested tokens. This means that even the new beneficiaries must tread carefully, as emergency unstaking could lead to losing these tokens too. 😲💔 This ingenious system absorbs unstaked tokens, transforming them into incentives to prolong staking positions. It's like turning one person's emergency unstake into another person's treasure! 💎💡
🔒 Security Meets Accessibility: Building on a Solid Foundation! 🏛️🔐
When it comes to blockchain technology, security and decentralization are of paramount importance. VINCI acknowledges this and strives to have its roots firmly planted on the most secure, decentralized, adopted, accessible, and enduring chain. 🔒💪 That's why the team has chosen BNB Chain, the second most adopted chain in the industry, as the central hub for VINCI's activities. By doing so, they ensure that users have a seamless experience and minimize entry barriers for potential retail users. 💻💸
🌐 Scaling Solutions: Growing with the Community! 🌱🚀
VINCI understands that as the ecosystem matures, users may seek destinations that offer optimal user experience, accessibility, and security. They anticipate that novel scaling solutions will continue to emerge, and users will have the freedom to move their assets and engage in VINCI-related activities wherever they find the best fit. 📈🌐
📈 Token Distribution: Creating Opportunities for All! 🤝💰
At VINCI, the team is committed to fostering a fair and inclusive environment for creators and their communities. They recognize the need to overcome industry practices and address distorted incentives that hinder the growth of the culture sector. By leveraging the potential of Web3 and targeted solutions, VINCI aims to revolutionize the connection between creators and their communities, providing more opportunities for economic growth and success. 🌍💡
🏞️ A Vision for the Future: Where Digital and Physical Merge! 🌌🖌️
VINCI's vision extends far beyond the present. They envision a future where the digital and physical realms seamlessly blend together, creating an immersive experience for creators and fans alike. 🌟🎨 Whether it's building connections, enhancing fan experiences, or providing efficient and impactful creator tooling, VINCI aims to be the go-to platform at every stage of the creator lifecycle. 🌈🤝
Join the VINCI community today and be a part of this exciting revolution in the creative industries! 🚀🎉 Let's unlock the potential of Web3 and empower creators to thrive like never before! 💪💡
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2023.05.29 14:41 BolsheviksParty I GOT AN OFFER!!!

After getting fired from my first job 6 months in back in 2021 I went into a state of depression and burnout. I could no longer find joy in programming, with time however, I recovered. I am now as motivated as when I first started out. I got back up on my feet after I started building out my passion project which reignited that spark.
I started applying at the worst time possible, when I could have easily gotten an offer during the hiring surge in early 2022 (Clickup was literally hiring HTML/CSS Developers). However, I came to realize that if I had managed to get my first job in 2021 with no relevant experience, I could do it again in 2023 with the hiring freeze and layoffs, even if the odds seems stacked against me.
This offer is a 70% increase in salary from my previous job! I am still in a state of shock to just know that someone would be willing to pay me this much, especially since I have no educational background and was an unemployed loser. They use the latest tech and are also a mid-sized company!
Estimation Time: 2 months and 15 days of jobs searching.I started low and then eventually worked my way up to 100+ applications a day. Around 30 interviews/phone calls. 5 final stages. One offer was about to be on the table until they realized I didn’t have a degree (this really put a chip on my shoulder).
And not a single damn Leetcode interview through the graces of God.Background: I have no degree, and completely self-taught. I got my first job at 19 only after one term of university and dropped out.
Here’s how I got back into the market with such a huge gap on my resume. Note: this is just based on my experience and presumptions.
  1. Mass apply, it quite literally is a numbers game. If there are thousands of job listings out there, eventually one will say yes. Do be careful of recruiting agencies, I tend to avoid job listings by them since they seem to be a waste of time.
  2. Exaggerate, embellish your work/experience but NEVER lie. You’re here to brag about yourself and how cool you are. The company is also doing the same so it’s okay to do the same.
  3. Polish your resume, this is REALLY important. Make it look structured and not something a kid could easily do.
  4. F*ck cover letters
  5. If you’re new to the industry, don’t ever apply jobs that uses myworkday job applications, they’re a WASTE of time.
  6. Most offers for juniors will require relocation sadly.
  7. NEVER talk sh*t about your previous employers
  8. Ask questions, not just any questions but GOOD questions. Show you’re interested in the company as well as trying to succeed. You’ll also learn a lot if they’re a sh*tty company to begin with.
  9. Jobs with 200+ applications? Apply anyways, I’ve gotten responses from them before.
  10. Have decent projects that you could talk about and explain your approach to building things
  11. Hone in on your “tell me about yourself“ answer and recite it. Make it interesting and RELEVANT
  12. Don’t forget to smile :D
  13. If you’re religious, pray. Count your blessings and do it with the right intentions. Ask yourself why do you want a dev job? To continue being a resentful pr*ck? To one day help and lead others? To support your family? To support yourself? Greed? I was very indecisive about whether or not I should post this, but decided to because I see so many negative posts on here about people not finding a job so I thought it's the least I could do by sharing some good news. Link:
submitted by BolsheviksParty to cscareerquestions [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:38 AdamChandler New Jersey Solar Incentives: A Complete Guide to Solar Rebates, Tax Incentives, Panels & Costs in the State of NJ

New Jersey Solar Incentives: A Complete Guide to Solar Rebates, Tax Incentives, Panels & Costs in the State of NJ
Renewable energy has gained significant importance in our endeavors to address climate change and establish a sustainable future. In New Jersey, residents are fortunate to have a range of solar incentives that make transitioning to solar power more accessible and affordable. Let’s delve into the various incentives available in the state of New Jersey.
New Jersery State Incentives/Rebates/SRECs
One of the key programs in New Jersey is the State Incentives/Rebates/Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs). This program enables homeowners to sell the excess solar energy they generate back to the grid. Through this initiative, homeowners earn credits, known as Solar Renewable Energy Certificates or SRECs, which can be sold to utilities, providing an additional source of income. The Successor Solar Incentive (SuSI) program, which replaced the Transition Incentive Program (TIP) in August 2021, offers fixed-price, 15-year SREC-IIs. For every 1,000 kWh produced, homeowners can earn one SREC-II, valued at $90 each for residential net metered systems.
New Jersey Solar Panels – Net Metering Policy
New Jersey’s net metering (NEM) rules require investor-owned utilities, energy suppliers, and certain municipal utilities and electric cooperatives to offer net metering. Net metering allows homeowners to offset their electricity bills by exporting excess solar energy to the grid. Under NEM, homeowners receive credits for Net Excess Generation (NEG) at the full retail rate, which can be carried over month-to-month within a 12-month annual true-up period. At the end of the 12-month period, any remaining NEM credits are compensated at the wholesale cost of power.
Property Tax Exemptions
To further incentivize solar adoption, New Jersey provides property tax exemptions for homeowners who install solar panels. This exemption helps offset the upfront cost of installing a solar system. Homeowners can apply for a certificate from their local assessor, which will reduce the assessed value of their property to account for the renewable energy system. By reducing the property’s assessed value, homeowners can enjoy long-term savings on property taxes. Read the full blog here…
submitted by AdamChandler to Residential_Solar_US [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:33 Old_Crab_712 Top 10 Design Thinking Courses in Gurgaon

Taking up a career with a design thinking course will help you transform the way how you develop products and their applications that can be applied across multiple industries. By using structured design thinking methods, you can generate creative ideas and develop products with a human-centered approach that helps bring products to market faster.
Top 10 Design Thinking Courses in Gurgaon
1. Henry Harvin
Henry Harvin is an E-Learning platform that caters to learning solutions for a global audience in various professional courses. One of the most popular training programs is the Design Thinking courses. Throughout Gurgaon, Henry Harvin ranks at number 2 in this category, which is based on recommendations from
2. The Knowledge Academy
One of the well-established training providers in India is The Knowledge Academy. This institute offers a 1-day design thinking online course.
Participants enrolling in this program will gain an in-depth understanding of how to approach issues & come up with solutions. Concepts will be covered, including methodology, target group, developing design, etc.
3. NobleProg
NobleProg was founded in 2005 in Poland and has since provided comprehensive learning solutions to a global audience. Apart from training, they also provide coaching and consultation.
Regarding design thinking training it offers onsite and online training. This course provides a comprehensive understanding of Design Thinking's five stages.
4. Emeritus
Emeritus is a reputed Ed-Tech company and is on a mission to cater professional courses to a wider audience. Their courses are partnered with some of India's reputed universities.
Students participating in this design thinking certification course will work on innovative approaches to integrating user requirements, with the help of technological abilities for business success.
ISEL Global offers a wide range of professional training services in technology and management.
With this design thinking certification, participants will learn basic concepts and processes that provide solutions when a problem arises.
Activities in this training include case studies, projects, quizzes, icebreakers, videos, role-plays, etc.
KPMG is a training institute established in September 1993. Today they operate in different cities across the country. Apart from training, they also provide services in various specialties.
Design thinking training by KPMG provides a comprehensive curriculum by industry experts & it is a workshop held for 3 days that consists of group assignments and capstone projects.
IIMB offers a live online training program to its participants, and apart from training, they also provide services to clients.
Students participating in this design thinking courses by IIMB can reap many benefits, both personally and professionally. Since dealing with customers is required to understand and be innovative in solving business problems.
8. QAI
QAI is a global institute that conducts instructor-led training (ILT) for professional courses.
Participants that enroll in this design thinking course will implement methods and techniques for innovative solutions. The training starts with a visualization of the end process instead of a direct problem-solving approach. A wholistic approach to a goal allows the mind to work more effectively.
9. Unichrone
Unichrone is a highly professional training provider in various specialties IT Software, Cybersecurity, Project Management, etc. This institute offers tailored training classes led by experienced professionals.
The training on Design Thinking online course offered by Unichrone is highly recommended by past students. The course covers an in-depth understanding of the requirements based on the user's experience with the products and services.
10. Leadership Tribe
Leadership Tribe is another exceptional training provider for design thinking certifications that offers consultancy services. Students participating in this program will learn basic concepts of a problem-solving methodology.
In this course, students will have to be innovative while solving problems and considering the client's requirements to reach the end goal.
Ultimately, the successful completion of this design thinking course will enable you to design and test products that run smoothly and efficiently. Following the instructions provided by these courses will equip organizations to adopt changes that reward business processes with better productivity.
Q1. What is a design thinking course?
Ans. Design Thinking is the process of being innovative when leveraging fundamental design thinking principles and innovative problem-solving tools. This is being done to address business challenges and build products, by implementing strategies for optimal use and performance.
Q2. What is the importance of a Design Thinking course?
Ans. A course in design thinking can help you transform your product development across multiple industries. With structured design thinking methods, you can generate creative ideas and develop products with a human-centered approach to bring effective products to market quickly.
submitted by Old_Crab_712 to u/Old_Crab_712 [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:26 More_Dinner724 Earn Profit with Your Comfort – CWG Trading Online

Considering the current economic scenario, a growing number of people are considering a career in the trading markets. If you do not know enough about the markets to make an educated decision, it is advisable to engage with a commercial trading broker that can handle your accounts and provide you guidance on your transactions.
Initial Procedures
You should still learn the fundamentals of Cwg Trading Online, such as contracts for difference (CWGs), costing, risks, and associated processes, even if you want to employ experienced trading brokers. A broker's website should provide a comprehensive disclosure statement detailing all the products and amenities they provide. There are beginner online courses available for anyone interested in learning the basics of CWG trading. The next step is to log onto the broker's website and create an account. Verification can now be performed entirely digitally, eliminating the need for paper documents.
Crediting a Bank Account With Money.
There is no minimum deposit for opening an account or initiating trades in CWGs or FX. As soon as you log in with your credit card details, you can begin trading CWGs or FX. In addition, you will Get $100 Welcome Bonus to utilize in your trading account as a warm welcome. Payment for CWG trades can be made using RTGS or EFT. Direct cash deposits or cheques can also be used to fund CWG trading, albeit this is not suggested due to the high costs associated with clearing and administration.
CWG Trading's Available Tools
If you have access to the Internet and an online broker, all you want to do to trade CWGs from your home computer is log in and use the trading interface they provide. Foreign exchange (Forex) and contracts for difference (CWGs) can be traded via the broker's free mobile applications.
What You Should Know About CWGs?
The right amount of homework must be done before venturing into CWG trading. A good brokerage will supply you with lots of in-house training materials that you may use at no extra expense. Online seminars and classes are available to help you get educated when you start trading CWGs.
The most important aspect of CWG trading is developing and implementing a thorough risk management strategy. In order to keep trading if you take a loss, it is important to control your risk by determining how much of your capital you are ready to lose on each deal.
Trading CWGs can be high-risk if you do not have a strategy in place to limit your exposure to loss. Without a proper risk management strategy in place, investing a large portion of your trading capital in a single deal puts you at risk of losing all and rendering you unable to trade further. If you lose everything and need to get out of the market, you might never come back.
Benefit from CWG's cheap spreads and huge leverage. CWG offers reasonable spreads on a variety of assets, as well as leverage. You can increase your potential earnings while decreasing your exposure to risk.
submitted by More_Dinner724 to u/More_Dinner724 [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:26 crucialLearning 7 Habits for Success in an Organization: Building Accountability and Achieving Remarkable Results

Organizations strive for success and growth in today's dynamic and competitive business landscape. However, achieving remarkable results requires more than technical expertise; it demands cultivating essential habits leading to excellence. By adopting these habits, employees can contribute significantly to their organization's success while enhancing personal and professional development. This article will explore seven habits for success that every employee should embrace, drawing insights from Charles Duhigg's influential book, "The Power of Habits."
  1. Setting Clear Goals: Success begins with a clear vision and well-defined goals. Employees who set specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives have a roadmap to guide their actions. Individuals can enhance their focus, motivation, and overall performance by aligning personal goals with the organization's objectives. Regularly reviewing and adjusting goals ensures that employees stay on track and adapt to changing circumstances.
  2. Cultivating a Growth Mindset: A growth mindset is crucial for personal and organizational success. Employees who embrace a growth mindset view challenges as opportunities for learning and development. They seek feedback, actively develop their skills, and remain open to new ideas and perspectives. Fostering a culture that values growth and continuous improvement empowers employees to reach their full potential and drives innovation within the organization.
  3. Practicing Effective Time Management: Time is valuable, and successful employees understand the importance of managing it effectively. Individuals can enhance their productivity and achieve desired outcomes by prioritizing tasks, avoiding distractions, and breaking down complex projects into manageable steps. Techniques such as the Pomodoro Technique, time blocking, and task prioritization can optimize time utilization and enable employees to meet deadlines consistently.
  4. Embracing Accountability: Accountability is a fundamental habit for success. Taking ownership of one's actions, responsibilities, and outcomes builds trust and fosters a culture of transparency within the organization. Accountable employees consistently deliver on their commitments, admit mistakes, and learn from failures. They hold themselves and others responsible for achieving collective goals, thereby contributing to the overall success of the team and the organization.
  5. Fostering Effective Communication: Effective communication is the cornerstone of collaboration and success in any organization. Employees who actively listen, articulate their ideas clearly, and provide respectful feedback create an environment conducive to teamwork, problem-solving, and innovation. By fostering open and transparent communication channels, organizations can enhance productivity, reduce conflicts, and promote a culture of shared success.
  6. Building Strong Relationships: Building strong relationships within the organization is crucial for success. Cultivating a network of supportive colleagues, mentors, and allies provides opportunities for growth, collaboration, and knowledge sharing. Strong relationships enable individuals to navigate workplace challenges more effectively, foster a positive work environment, and create a culture of mutual support and success.
  7. Committing to Continuous Learning and Development: In a rapidly evolving business landscape, continuous learning is vital for success. Successful employees make a habit of seeking out learning opportunities, both formal and informal. Whether through training programs, online courses, industry conferences, or self-directed reading, continuous learning ensures that employees stay ahead of the curve and contribute to their organization's innovation and growth.


Success in an organization requires more than mere technical competence. It demands the cultivation of essential habits that foster accountability, productivity, and personal growth. By adopting the seven habits for success outlined in this article, employees can contribute significantly to their organization's success and excel in their professional journey.
submitted by crucialLearning to u/crucialLearning [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:23 beycharra 11th gen i5 vs 12th gen i7?

While buying a laptop, shall I give more importance to the generation (11th gen, 12th gen, etc) or the i series (i5, i7, i9, etc)?
I want to buy a laptop for 1080p video editing, graphic design, web browsing, and programming. I have 2 options 11th gen i5 and 12th gen i7. Which one should I go for?
submitted by beycharra to intel [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:15 jellybelly326 To my fellow female lifters - I'm taking a break due to injury - how on earth do you deal with the mental side of it and what can I supplement with?

This sucks.
I've been really into my lifting program this year. I'm slamming protein, lifting heavy and just started taking creatine. I'm seeing great results and then BAM - elbow injury.
In hindsight - I think it's been developing for a while - I've noticed a bit of a weakness in my grip strength on my right arm - simple things like squeezing out my beauty blender, picking up the Brita filter from the fridge and squeezing the tube of tooth paste. I should have paid more attention to it, but I didn't.
I have no idea how long this break will last - certainly until my elbow stiffness is gone and then I'll incorporate my weights back in SLOWLY.
Anyway - how do you deal with the mental side of taking a break from lifting and what are your go-to pivot workouts if you need to take a break from lifting? Working out and overall movement is a very important part of my life - I mainly do it for mental health reasons, so it's pivotal that I find another form of exercise to enjoy - I thought I could start working on incline walking and running stamina - I'm headed to the NY Adirondacks in a few weeks for hiking and sight seeing and in 3 months we're headed to the Grand Canyon.
Any ideas are appreciated. Gosh I miss my weights.
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2023.05.29 14:13 KellyfromLeedsUK York security Company

York security Company
At CCTV York our company specialises in providing top-quality CCTV installation services to homes and businesses across York. We understand that each customer’s needs are unique, which is why cctv York offers a range of services to suit a variety of needs and budgets. Our CCTV specialists offer everything from Ajax alarms, and Home IP network to Hikvision and Dahua CCTV Camera systems.

Why Not install your self a Ajax home alarm?

Installing an Ajax alarm system can be done by individuals who are comfortable with basic DIY (do-it-yourself) projects and have a good understanding of electrical systems and home security. However, it's important to note that installing a security system involves working with electrical wiring and potentially drilling holes in walls or ceilings, so if you're uncertain or uncomfortable with these tasks, it's advisable to hire a professional installer.
If you decide to install an Ajax alarm system yourself, here are some general steps to consider:
  1. Familiarize yourself with the system: Read the installation manual and understand the components included in the Ajax alarm system. This will give you a clear idea of the installation process and the necessary tools.
  2. Plan the installation: Determine the optimal locations for sensors, detectors, and the control panel. Consider factors such as coverage, accessibility, and wiring requirements. Make sure to choose strategic locations that cover vulnerable entry points in your home.
  3. Prepare the necessary tools: Gather the tools needed for the installation, such as a drill, screwdriver, cable clips, wire strippers, and a ladder.
  4. Install the control panel: Start by mounting the control panel in a central location, preferably near the main entrance. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for proper installation and wiring.
  5. Install the sensors and detectors: Place doowindow sensors and motion detectors at designated locations according to your plan. Ensure they are securely mounted and aligned correctly. Run the necessary wiring or connect wireless components, depending on the system.
  6. Configure the system: Once all the components are installed, follow the instructions provided by Ajax to configure the system. This typically involves connecting the control panel to your home's Wi-Fi network and programming the system settings.
  7. Test the system: After installation and configuration, thoroughly test the system to ensure all components are functioning correctly. Activate each sensor and ensure that the control panel receives the appropriate signals.
Remember, Ajax alarm systems may have specific installation instructions and requirements, so it's crucial to consult the manufacturer's documentation and guidelines throughout the process. If at any point you encounter difficulties or feel unsure about the installation, it's advisable to consult a professional installer or contact the manufacturer's support for assistance.
submitted by KellyfromLeedsUK to cctvsecuritysystems [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:11 Apophis23_ Future misinformation?

Sorry, I know its "AI this" and "AI that" and this is another one of those speculative posts.
In the near future, given the sophistication of these language and image generating programs, what measures are currently in place in library genesis and other free libraries, that would stop people from uploading fake textbooks and fiction books that look very similar to the actual thing, but in fact have different content? Text and pictures can be reliably generated now, and its a matter of time before somebody combines them to create a program capable of creating fake (or real) books. A person pirating a fake book wouldn't likely know that it's fake since they've likely never seen the real book in print (hence why they're pirating).
The danger is that the information could be totally wrong in important places (e.g. different numbers in derived scientific equations, witheld/deleted information, added plausible information) and the reader wouldn't know; thus they could read entire books and thusly have wasted their time, or worse, be misinformed.
I can see companies and governments doing this as an anti-piracy measure. I thought of this while taking a shit, am I being paranoid?
submitted by Apophis23_ to libgen [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 14:03 carpediemeducation Is Carpe Diem Best for 7+ and English Tuition in Dagenham? Ask to Expert

Is Carpe Diem Best for 7+ and English Tuition in Dagenham? Ask to Expert
An increasing number of schools in London and elsewhere are using the 7 plus or 7 examinations, a very difficult school entrance exam, to admit students to the third grade. The exam typically occurs in fee-paying independent schools on January 2 and November 2 of every year, though specific dates may vary per school. A growing number of elite schools in London use Year 7 as a competitive entrance exam for admission to Year 3. The test will be taken by your kid in Year 2.
This is the major justification for selecting 7+ Tuition in London. Math and English are the two main subjects tested in the seventh grade exam. Verbal and non-verbal thinking are currently being taught in more and more schools. Tests are usually written, but may have verbal sections that test rote arithmetic, spelling, memory and dictation.
At Carpe Diem, our talented and professional team offers exceptional tutoring services to students of all ages, levels and majors. We specialize in teaching A-level subjects and preparing students for entry to the world's best universities, and our tutors themselves are recruited from only the top seven in the UK.

Is Carpe Diem English Tuition Best for 7+?

There are reasons why you should consider hiring English Tuition in Dagenham for your child. Your child will have a unique learning experience when you participate in our English language learning program at the Dagenham Centre. At Carpe Diem, we are experts in understanding the challenges your child faces and tailoring lessons to their needs so they can learn to speak and write English with confidence.
Our Basic English language learning concept can go a long way in boosting a child's confidence. They can express themselves verbally in front of peers and adults, from reading aloud to presenting ideas, sharing opinions and asking questions. Improving their English will increase their self-confidence, which will help them succeed in social interactions and school work.
Our teachers can help your child make significant progress in school. Reading is key in all subjects, as is the ability to listen and communicate with teachers when they need help. So when you need the Best Tutors in Dagenham, our professional tutors look after your child's holistic development and language skills, encouraging them to take pride in their work and think creatively when solving problems.

What are the benefits of Carpe Diem 7+ Tuition?

At Carpe Diem, our 7+ Tuition in London experts can offer a number of benefits to students preparing for the 7 entrance exams. Here are some of the benefits of teaching 7:
· Exam preparation
The 7 tutorials are specially designed to help students prepare for the 7 entrance exams. These exams are very competitive and require a solid foundation in subjects such as English, mathematics and reasoning. Tutoring can provide focused preparation and teach students the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in these exams.
· Personal attention
In a learning environment, students receive personal attention from experienced teachers. This individual or group instruction allows teachers to understand each student's strengths and weaknesses and adjust the teaching method accordingly. Teachers can provide individualized feedback and address specific areas where a student needs improvement.
· Improved topic information
Teaching 7 can help students better understand core subjects such as English and mathematics. Our Best Tutors in Dagenham can explain complex concepts, introduce advanced topics and provide additional resources and practice materials to enhance your learning. This can significantly increase the student's subject knowledge and self-confidence.
· Exam strategies and techniques
Entrance exams often require specific strategies and techniques to maximize performance. Teachers experienced in the Seven Exams can teach students effective exam strategies such as time management, question analysis, and problem-solving techniques. These skills are valuable not only for exams but also for future academic endeavors.
· Familiarity with Exam Format
Tuition programs familiarize students with the structure and format of 7+ entrance exams. At Carpe Diem, our Best Tutors in Dagenham can provide practice tests and mock exams that simulate the actual exam conditions, helping students become more comfortable and confident in tackling the exams. This familiarity reduces exam anxiety and enhances performance. It's important to note that the specific benefits may vary depending on the quality of the tuition program, the expertise of the tutors, and the individual needs and abilities of the student.
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2023.05.29 14:02 Gumbybum Lore Discovery Part 3/3: Fishbones, Flatwoods, and Colonel's Dirty Little Secret

Disclaimer: This post is long, so you may want to save it and read it later. Also, I put a lot of time into both researching this and writing it up. So if all you have is negative feedback, kindly keep it to yourself. Finally, there’s a lot more that I’ve been looking into beyond the scope of this write-up. If you’d like to join my exp-LORE-ation efforts, please let me know.

Edit: I guess hyperlinks aren't working right now, so I'll have to manually paste those in.
Recap: Part 1 establishes that Colonel is the same kid who was playing with his “baer frends” at the Palace of the Winding Path. Part 2 establishes that Darius Angler was the author of the 4 Untitled Poems.
TLDR (mad spoilers up in here): Fishbones led the raid that killed Colonel and all the Responders in Flatwoods, and he could very well be Darius Angler’s brother. Colonel may have been up to something nefarious with the children of Flatwoods (but not in that way). Ra Ra might be Ward’s granddaughter. And it looks like mole rat teeth are used to craft Day Tripper.
We Begin at the End: November 2096. 13 Bridge Street, Flatwoods, WV. Responder Colonel died in the raider attack on Flatwoods, along with just about every other Responder that resided there. The raiders attacked because a Chem Addict stole all their food and chems and fled to Flatwoods. You can find her body and holotape just West of the river. But before we get to that, we need to look at what Colonel was up to before he died. Most people probably overlooked this detail because they haven’t explored Flatwoods since they were level 3, and at that point they didn’t have a jetpack or the Marsupial mutation. But Colonel’s front AND back porches are completely railed off. If you make it over the front railing, you’ll find the corpses of Colonel and (likely) the raider that killed him, Colonel’s second “Survivor Story,” and a stroller with an intact doll in it. Colonel was the “caregiver for children” in Flatwoods, so the stroller may have once been for an actual baby.
But on the back porch, Colonel was burning books, files, documents, and the contents of a mysterious duffel back on his grill. Colonel definitely had a secret and he was literally trying to burn the evidence. And that secret was his past with the Diehards and Darius Angler. If you follow the road West out of Flatwoods, you’ll eventually arrive at Hillfolk Hotdogs, which is the site of Untitled Poem #3 and the former home of Colonel when he lived with Angler as a child (you can find one of his “baer frends” on the kid-sized bunk bed). But inside the bus(?) at Hillfolk’s, you’ll also find similar documents and a duffel bag, just like the kind Colonel was burning in Flatwoods when he died. As a matter of fact, there are other similarly suspicious duffel bags and file caches along the Ohio River. And this takes us to Ohio River Adventures.
Fishbones is a Dirty Rat Bastard: In the exact same way that the Diehards returned to Crater, a former territory of theirs (and site of Untitled Poem #2), the Diehards also returned to Ohio River Adventures. Now, O.R.A. gets overlooked because there is no main quest line that keeps you returning to this area (maybe the grind for Raider Rep), but this place is former Diehard territory too. Now, it is critically important to know that both Fishbones (Bones) and Blackeye are O.G. Diehards. Blackeye was almost certainly Colonel’s 1st grade teacher back at the Palace of the Winding Path. But what about Bones? Well, my friends, I bet I’m about to tell you something you didn’t already know:
When Margie McClintock died in 2096 (as inferred what Rose tells us during the main quest), Meg Groberg took over and soon thereafter led the Diehards out of Appalachia before returning years later (that, you already knew). You probably also already knew that before Margie died, Meg and the other Diehards went against protocol and “shot first” when robbing people. Meg was a true raider in all the ways that Margie was not. But what you probably didn’t put together is that Margie died around the time that Flatwoods was attacked. According to the Chem Addict from Flatwoods:
“Chems Addict: Well, this is it I guess. Rock bottom I think they call it. I still miss him. Billy. I knew he was too young for me, but he made me feel good. Though it's the old Billy I really miss. The one who used to do nothing all day with me but listen to the radio and drink. I shoulda got out sooner when Billy and his buddies started torturing little cats and dogs. His friends... were no good. But that didn't stop me anyway. I can't believe my wake up call was watching people's heads... get stuck on spikes. So... what is an old gal like me to do? Steal all the food. Steal all the chems. And get the hell out of there. *laughs* I'd trade my last bite of food just to see the look on their faces. Oh, I know it's going to piss off Billy's friends, but I don't give a damn. I tell myself I should feel sorry for the little town across the river. But if I'm being honest, and that's what this tape is for, I don't really care. I call myself an addict, but it ain't the chems that finally got me. It was always Billy.”
I want to emphasize the “heads on spikes” part, because that’s something Margie would never tolerate. But Meg on the other hand let raiders be raiders. The other thing that I want to point out is “Billy.” I’m not saying for certain that this Billy is the same as Darius Angler’s brother, but I am saying that technically no body was ever recovered from the molten steel, and Angler didn’t see the accident happen because he didn’t work at Grafton Steel anymore. It’s possible that “Billy Angler,” who didn’t quit because “he needs the money,” could have taken out some kind of insurance policy, named his chem addict girlfriend as the beneficiary, faked his own death, and skipped town. Do I know for certain that this happened? Of course not. But what I do know is this: FISHBONES’S REAL NAME IS BILLY!!! The reason he’s obsessed with the letter B is because that’s his first initial. You see, at first I thought the raiders that wrecked Flatwoods were Cutthroats because of their whole feud with the Responders. But then I learned that the Flatwoods attack was caused by a bunch of chems that the Addict stole, and the Diehards were Appalachia’s great chems supplier (thanks to Angler). Furthermore, Fishbones’s current operation is spiking Mirelurk meat with an addictive substance (chems). And since Bones is an OG Diehard, it means he was the piece-of-shit raider that attacked Flatwoods and killed Colonel.
A Bit About Bruiser: I found a few interesting details about Bruiser at Ohio River Adventures, but nothing too profound. We know that he used to play football, his mascot was a “battle bear,” and that he spent some time in a vault. The likeliest conclusion from this information is that he’s from Grafton, given that’s the only high school in the region with a football field and it’s next to the makeshift vault that formerly housed a few raiders before the BOS took over. If you look up the IRL Grafton High School, you’ll find that it’s on Yates Ave (likely the namesake of Sofie Yates, a Responder turned Raider in Flatwoods) and their mascot is the “Bearcat.” Also, all the varsity jackets in FO76 have the letter B on them, but that’s more Fishbones’s thing. But none of this has anything to do with Colonel or Angler, so let’s move on.
The Charleston Cartel (2079-2082): From the Charleston Capitol Building terminal entries, we know there was a massive chem trade happening in Charleston at this time:
“Name: Matoukas, George
Date of Crime: 10.09.81
300 Block of Oak. Based on anonymous tip, Responder Atkins found subject peddling vast amounts of illegal chems out of his home. Over 300lbs of illegal chems found in the subject's basement.
Matoukas sentenced to 5 years hard labor under close supervision, with possibility of parole for good behavior. Chems were seized and destroyed.”
Since the Diehards’ operation at the Palace of the Winding Path effectively ended with the great rapture of ‘79, it only makes sense that the Diehards would have to adapt their drug trade elsewhere. If you actually look for raider activity in Charleston (outside of the courthouse), you won’t find a lot, but what you will find is very telling of their operations. You’ll find a dead raider at the chemistry workbench inside Hornwright Industrial Headquarters. You’ll find a few dead raiders in/above the pharmacy on the south side of town. And you’ll find a dead raider lurking outside the doctors’ offices (which is NOT the hospital) to the north. And this takes us to Dr. Joseph.
Dr. Joseph was a psychiatrist in Charleston who practiced both before AND after the Great War. He had the authority to refer patients to Allegheny Asylum and write prescriptions; Prescriptions that would be filled at the pharmacy on the south side of Charleston. To one patient, P. Davis, he prescribed Day Tripper. This insightful detail is why the Diehards were operating in Charleston in the first place. As many seasoned players have observed, Day Tripper is not craftable in this game; You can only find it out in the wild. Consider the following terminal entry from the Palace of the Winding Path:
“Log: 12.29.77 Since the war, incense ingredients have been hard to come by. We started rationing weeks ago, in anticipation of this, and doses are much lower. The sedative effects of the incense are a priority, to keep people from freaking out.
I've begun to improvise with some other ingredients and found some creative ways of stretching the supply, at least until things return to relative normal. Other chem supplies are plentiful.”
So here’s what I think happened. If the Diehards were in dire need of Day Tripper to make their custom chems (see: Making Incense), and the Responders had a healthy supply of Day Tripper locked inside a pharmacy in Charleston, and there was also a doctor who wrote prescriptions for Day Tripper, then all the Diehards needed to do was register a new patient with Dr. Joseph. Enter: Darius Angler.
Darius Angler was batshit crazy (if in doubt, refer to his manifesto). Angler, who now resided at Hillfolk Hotdogs, was also just a short trip up the New River from Charleston. He would periodically visit Dr. Joseph, get his prescription filled like a meth-head scoring Sudafed, and used the trip as a cover to smuggle the refined chems into the city. Essentially, I think he just made a loop around the southwest “island” of the Forest (area surrounded on all sides by 3 rivers, referred to as “Zone D”). The loop around Zone D functioned as a supply chain/assembly line for producing the chems that were being smuggled into Charleston. There’s a lot of suspicious stuff happening around here: Raider activity, duffel bags/files, bridge control, coffin conspiracies, etc. that I had to edit out for length, but I’ll try to summarize it here.
Hillfolk Hotdogs is where Angler and Colonel raised mole rats for reasons I’ll explain later. Follow the Ohio River south and you’ll soon come to a boat that’s not far away from a crashed truck loaded up with industrial chemical barrels (useful for producing industrial quantities of chems). South of that is a tent with a duffel bag. Further south you’ll find a 3-story house with suspicious files and a duffle bag hidden in the attic (just like at Hillfolk’s). South of that are some dry-docked boats with a chem box and a duffel bag. Even further south is Ohio River Adventure (a current Raider base of operation that served a similar purpose back then). Southeast of there, by Lewis & Sons, is a little “boat” with 2 stuffed bears, which I think was left behind by Colonel as he reenacted his river adventures with Angler using his bears. Southeast of there is a floating Nuka-Cola structure with a submerged safe guarded by 2 more bears, one of which has a liquor bottle. I think this is a dead drop and the bears are another work of Colonel’s. Heading East up the River you’ll find a raider-operated “store” at the end of a questionable bridge. Further east is Charleston, where George Matoukas was distributing the chems. And on the return trip down the New River is another dead drop directly beneath the Bridge on the west side. It’s a safe by a couch with a bear and Jangles (I think Jangles is supposed to represent George). Again, I think that this big loop is a supply chain/assembly line for moving chems and the components needed to make chems.
The smuggling operation also deviously involved Colonel and his “Baer Frends.” If you jetpack up to the very top of AVR Medical Center, you’ll find two people who OD’ed on chems, each with a stuffed bear next to them. So I think that either the Diehards were sewing chems inside Colonel’s stuffed bears and using them as drug mules to smuggle chems into Charleston, or that Colonel just climbed to the highest point on the hospital (as he did at the Palace and later in Flatwoods) and left two bears as a memorial. But I’m leaning toward the former because of an unmarked location in the Savage Divide that I found. It’s southeast of Bastion Park right at the bend of the monorail line. It’s essentially a fire pit with a bunch of stuffed bears thrown in it with a few dead party-goers around the area. I think this is the location where the Responders destroyed all of the Chems, bears and all, that they confiscated from George Matoukas. Speaking of George Matoukas….
Curious George and the Rocket: According to the above-mentioned terminal entry, George Matoukas was apparently the only criminal who the Responders sentenced to hard labor rather than exile. If you go to Rollins Labor Camp (formerly Rollins Work Camp), you won’t find a whole lot there other than Blood Eagles. But what you WILL find at the very top of the crane structure are two stuffed bears and a Jangles. Colonel, as a child, had a thing for playing with “baer frends in high places.” I can’t say with any certainty what happened here, but maybe Angler was the one who gave the responders that “anonymous tip” because Matoukas was starting to rub off on Colonel, and Angler didn’t want him growing up to be a Raider. Matoukas gets sentenced to hard labor rather than exile, with a change of parole pending “good behavior,” which means “snitching.” So maybe Angler took Colonel to visit his “friend” at the labor camp (visiting hours are a thing), Angler introduced George to a “rocket,” and Colonel used his toys to recreate the scene. Or not. Who knows? But what I do know is that the shitty poet (Angler) moved on from Hillfolk Hotdogs to go to the Cranberry Bog, and I think the Christmas Flood gave him the perfect reason to leave.
Untitled Poem #3: I’m intentionally skipping Untitled Poem #2, partly because I haven’t found much deeper meaning to it, but mostly because what I think it means is little more than conjecture. #3, on the other hand, I feel like I can make sense of it:
“white cedar leaning against the shadow of our river
peeling like asylum walls
hobbled together around dignity that died long ago
simple things to jumpstart fogged memories
holed as teeth hidden in tin
we leave our things pinned
winning only the stuck wings”
I think the phrase “white cedar leaning against the shadow of our river” is the title of the painting in Dr. Joseph’s office. Or at least that’s how Darius Angler would describe it as if it was some kind of Rorschach test. “Peeling like asylum walls, hobbled together around dignity that died long ago” is a reference to the office wallpaper, and perhaps another one of Dr. Joseph’s clients, Daniel Boone.
“Patient: "Boone, D"
Interesting case.
Patient responds only to "Daniel Boone" and indeed seems to believe himself to be the historical figure by the same name. I'd heard that some of the hillfolk can end up a bit off after lack of socialization, but I'd not expected to see such a case.
Advised that he be sent to Allegheny rather than the Penitentiary for further observation.”
There’s only a VERY narrow window of plausibility to suggest that Angler is Daniel Boone, so I won’t. But this entry seems to refer back to Untitled Poem #3, with worlds like “hillfolk” (as in Hillfolk Hotdogs), “Allegheny” (as in asylum), and “the historical figure” (as in dignity that died long ago). I think the line “simple things to jumpstart fogged memories'' refers to the Souvenir Magnet on the fridge at Hillfolk Hotdogs, and I think it came from Lady Janet’s Soft Serve (not Cow Spot Creamery). “Holed as teeth hidden in tin” refers to the mole rats that he was raising with Colonel at Hillfolk’s (the cat bowl on the floor is for the mole rat that walks around the trailer like Fry’s dog from Futurama, just waiting for Colonel to come home). And “we leave our things pinned, winning only the stuck wings,” refers to Angler’s (and Colonel’s) escape from the Diehards. I’m assuming this event took place just after the Christmas flood, once the chem operation in Charleston was destroyed with the rest of the city. But if you remember those dead raiders I mentioned earlier, there are a few more. Outside of Dr. Joseph’s office is a dead raider next to an ammo box. Well, next to him is a makeshift bridge that goes over the highway. And if you keep going in the same direction once you step off the bridge you’ll hit the southwest corner of Wade Airport. Immediately in that corner past the fence is a locked truck-trailer (watch out for the mine) with 2 more dead raiders and a power armor chassis (sometimes). I think the last line of the poem refers to this exact event, leaving his power armor (and compatriots) pinned in the back of the trailer so he can steal yet another Vertibird. Angler flew the automated aircraft to Watoga. Why? I don’t know. But it explains how he got to the Cranberry Bog and why his body can be found just a short distance south of the city.
Untitled Poem #4: Just like #2, I don’t have any deep insight into the specifics so all I can do is speculate. I’ll spare you the details. But what I think it’s about is the very end of his relationship with Colonel. I think the time Angler and Colonel spent together in the unmarked cabin southeast of Sunrise Field was just Angler teaching Colonel to be self-sufficient (hunting, trapping, maintaining weapons and whatnot). I think that when the scorched attacked Harper’s Ferry in 2086 that there was also generally increased scorched activity in the eastern half of Appalachia. The poem describes Angler providing cover fire to, or perhaps just drawing fire away from Colonel as he escaped through Big Bend Tunnel, later to be found by the Responders. But again, like with #2, all I can do with this poem is speculate.
The Mysterious Mole Rats: This is a question I’ve had for almost 2 years now, and I think I finally figured it out. Back at the Palace of the Winding Path, there’s a lonely mole rat that lives in the computer room by the garden. There’s also a dead mole rat next to a dead raider pilot by a downed plane that was headed to the Palace from the north. I didn’t know what the Diehards needed mole rats for because I was only looking at the Palace itself. But the answer to this question is found at Lady Janet’s. Everyone thinks that the two bears in gas masks by the chemistry is just a Breaking Bad easter egg. But I think it’s yet another “baer frend” reenactment left behind by Colonel. Do you remember how the cultists at the Palace ran out of ingredients to make the “spiritual incense” and had to improvise? Well, one of the substitute ingredients they used, and the reason they were importing mole rats, and the reason the Diehards took care of the children like they did, is found in the baby carriage at Lady Janet’s.
A stroller full of human jaw bones? Yeah…. Teeth. Or more precisely, “baby teeth.” I suppose mole rat teeth would do in a pinch, but as messed up as it sounds human baby teeth were preferred. This is why the Diehards at the Palace were taking care of those first-graders; because six-year-olds shed baby teeth like it’s raining molars! This also answers a question you didn’t even know you had, and it takes us back to Flatwoods. Here’s a note written by Jeremiah Ward who lived in trailer in the town (and the Ransacked Bunker before that):
“I, Jeremiah Ward, resident in the town of Flatwoods, county of... not sure.
Being of sound mind, and not acting under... duress. Mostly.
Hereby declare this letter to be my last will and testament.
Mia gets the house, and everything in it.
It ain't much but that's all I got to give and... she's all I got.
I know she's still alive.
The Responders say the dogs got her, but I know it ain't true.
They been real good to us. Teaching an old geezer like me how to really cook is something. I'll give em that.
But I know they lyin about those dogs. I seen em in the hills. There's some bad folks scoping us out. They took my granddaughter, I just know it.
I'll get you back, Mia. I promise.”
Mia, a baby who slept in the crib in that trailer, was abducted by raiders. And the only raider gang that ever had any interest in kids was the Diehards. And when you remember that the Responders had a foster care program that would later be run by Colonel once he was older, you’ll remember that a shit load of children went “missing” when Billy (Fishbones) attacked Flatwoods. And if teeth (baby, mole rat, or otherwise) was the secret ingredient in Angler’s chem recipe… and Colonel was Angler’s apprentice for a number of years before he joined the Responders… and Colonel was the caretaker of all of the children of Flatwoods… then exactly what was in those documents that Colonel was burning on his back porch?
Full Circle: So after everything, the Diehards lost their crop of children at the Palace of the Winding Path in 2079, but took the children of Flatwoods and left Appalachia. When they came back, they put Fishbones (Billy) in charge of the Ohio River Adventures operation, who is now spiking the mirelurk meat with a potent chem. It’s totally possible that Ra Ra is actually Mia Ward (Jeremiah Ward’s granddaughter). Hell, it’s even possible that Jeremiah Ward is somehow Ward from Foundation. Since Colonel was obviously keeping, and subsequently burning, secrets, I’d say he was also inclined to keep his raider past a secret as well as the truth about his adoptive father. Like he said in his Survivor’s Story, “he was bad.” Perhaps the reason he kept his Diehard history a secret from the Dassa and the other Responders was because he knew that the Responders were the ones punishing and exiling people back in Charleston. But this whole story began the day Darius Angler decided to get revenge on Grafton Steel. And if his brother hadn’t actually died after all, then it would explain why Angler stayed with the Diehards for as long as he did rather than returning to the Free states. Regardless, this entire story began and ended with Billy. “It was always Billy.”
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2023.05.29 14:01 spunchy M&B 2023 Lecture 4: The Money View, Micro and Macro

M&B 2023 Lecture 4: The Money View, Micro and Macro
For our schedule and links to other discussions, see the Money and Banking 2023 master post.
This is the discussion thread for Economics of Money and Banking Lecture 4: The Money View, Micro and Macro.
The settlement (survival) constraint says you have to meet your cash commitments as they come due. This lecture explores the settlement constraint from multiple perspectives.
We can disaggregate assets into time patterns of future cash inflows, and liabilities into time patterns of future cash outflows (commitments). If your cash inflows are insufficient to cover your cash commitments at any given moment, then the settlement constraint binds, and you're dead.
The settlement constraint can be relaxed from above but not below. The payment system is a credit system. By relaxing our settlement constraint, economic units (agents) above us in the hierarchy can allow us to expand credit to make otherwise-impossible payments.
Mehrling introduces the "sources and uses" notation, an analytical tool that helps us match up cash flows with different liquidity categories: monetary, funding, and market.
This Lecture connects with Hyman Minsky's cashflow-oriented view of the economy, which we will discuss on Wednesday.
Note: The link to the Fed release in the lecture notes doesn't work anymore. Here's the latest version (Fourth Quarter 2022). The sources and uses matrices are on pages 1 and 2 (color-coded red).

Part 1: FT: Dealer of Last Resort

When I heard the news of another round of quantitative easing in the US last week, my first thought was that Mario Draghi should have done the same. Instead, the president of the European Central Bank opted for a conditional bond purchasing programme with an uncertain start date. In the meantime, the eurozone’s faltering economy needs a much more determined monetary stimulus, and it needs it right now.—QE would be right for Europe, too
The idea with dealer of last resort is that the central bank offers to buy an unlimited quantity of an asset at a particular price. This installs a floor below which the price cannot go—and hence a ceiling on the yield/interest rate. In the fall of 2012, the ECB is announcing its Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT) program, which offers to buy the sovereign debt of European member countries that need help—possibly Italy and Spain.
This is the "monetizing government debt" operation we've seen before.
The problem with the OMT program is that it only backstops sovereign debt if the countries ask for it and if they agree to certain conditions. But it can be problematic to ask for help. So the question is whether the OMT will have its desired effect if it never gets used/activated. Nearly nine years later, I think the answer is: partly.
Although the announcement of the program did help drive down interest rates, as far as I can tell the ECB has still never actually done any OMT purchases. Here's a Bloomberg article from 2020.
As of last year, Mario Draghi is now Prime Minister of Italy.

Part 2: Reading: Hyman Minsky

As we'll see in the reading next week, Minsky thought about the economy in terms of cashflows. His financial instability hypothesis was based on the idea that the financial sector becomes more brittle as it becomes more difficult for everyone to line up their cash inflows with their commitments—the "survival constraint" binds more tightly.
This can all happen without anyone becoming insolvent at any time.

Part 3: Payments: Money and Credit

In a "pure money" system, nobody ever borrows from each other. People make payments only by passing back and forth money assets. Whether that money is represented as physical coins/tokens/notes or merely as entries on a balance sheet, it's something that the people spending the money can't create more of.
Such a system is, of course, impossible. People will always find ways to borrow from each other to introduce elasticity.
On the other end of the spectrum is a "pure credit" system:
The above balance sheet shows payment by issuance. This creates a new IOU from the buyer to the seller of the goods. This expands credit in the economy.
There's also payment by set-off where the buyer crosses off a debt owed to him by the seller. This contracts credit.
And, for completeness, we can imagine the buyer taking on a liability that was previously owed by the seller. Credit neither expands nor contracts. This is payment by novation.
In the credit payment system, the quantity of outstanding credit increases and decreases as payments are made. That means the quantity of assets—and liabilities—expands and contracts. In the real world, there's both money and credit. Holding a buffer of money reserves allows us to make payments without lining them up perfectly against cash inflows.
Money is credit that's issued above you in the money-credit hierarchy. Banks, who sit above you in the hierarchy, create elasticity by swapping their liabilities for your liabilities. What's money to you (bank deposits) is a form of credit from the perspective of the banking system.
Notice that by using a bank as an intermediary, the overall payment system still behaves as a credit system. You pay using something that looks like money to you, but the bank created that money as credit.
On his BU site, Perry links to two helpful YouTube videos by the Bank of England:
The first video explains that money is a special form of generally acceptable IOU. In today's world, instead of being directly redeemable for something like gold, the central bank does other things to ensure the integrity of the monetary standard and to manage the stability (or instability) of the credit superstructure that rests on top of it.
The second video discusses "endogenous" money creation, narrow money versus broad money (hierarchy), and the effects of quantitative easing. Even for the "narrow money" issued by the central bank, they don't get to choose how much of it they issue. It has to endogenously adjust based on what's necessary for stable monetary conditions.

Part 4: Payments: Discipline and Elasticity

In our first example, the discipline came from the limited quantity of money—when either side ran out of money, they could no longer buy and trade stopped. In the second example, the discipline comes from the bilateral credit limit. In the third example the discipline comes from the credit limit and terms imposed by the bank on each borrower, and the elasticity comes from the willingness of the bank to swap its own IOU (which is money) for IOUs farther down the hierarchy (which are credit).—Lecture Notes
Banks can impose discipline from above by refusing to expand their credit, which is your money.
We can imagine credit limits as representing balance sheets' capacity to expand. And that capacity can bounce around depending on how much people trust each other, how much they trust financial conditions, and the capacity/willingness of lenders to expand credit.

Part 5: The Survival Constraint

To analyze the flow of money, we can think of all "economic units" (people, firms, governments, etc.) as banks. Everybody is a "money-flow" operation. Everybody faces a survival (liquidity/reserve/settlement) constraint.
To analyze how financial commitments affect the economy it is necessary to look at economic units in terms of their cash flows. The cash-flow approach looks at all units—be they households, corporations, state and municipal governments, or even national governments—as if they were banks.(Minsky 1986, p. 198)
For an economic agent to remain functional, it must be able to meet its cash commitments as they come due. If you can't make a promised payment, you're in trouble. In terms of day-to-day operations, you don't necessarily have to be solvent (assets > liabilities). You just have to be liquid enough to make your promised payments. You can continue doing business for a long time, even if you're insolvent. But not if you're illiquid.
"Liquidity kills you quick."—Perry Mehrling

Part 6: Sources and Uses Accounts

A key feature of the sources and uses framework is that it allows us to categorize cash flows. Different categories of sources and uses have different properties and represent different constraints. Mehrling breaks sources and uses into four categories: Goods, Financial Assets, Financial Debts, and Money.
Each category's source corresponds to a type of liquidity.
  • Goods: Expenditure/Receipt — Market Liquidity
  • Assets: Accumulate/Liquidate — Market Liquidity
  • Debts: Repay/Borrow — Funding Liquidity
  • Money: Hoard/Dishoard — Monetary Liquidity
Consistent with Mehrling's recent usage, I have replaced "decumulate" with "liquidate." For conciseness, I've shortened "Financial Assets" to "Assets" and "Financial Debts" to "Debts." Goods and money are also assets on the balance sheet, of course.
Dishoarding is the only source that requires no counterparty. Separating out assets and liabilities emphasizes that agents manage their gross liabilities, not just their net debts. Each and every cash commitment needs to be fulfilled.
The sources and uses accounts represent payment flows, whereas the balance sheets we're used to represent stocks. Sources and uses can be translated into balance sheet changes.
  • Rule 1: For each agent, every use has a corresponding source, and vice versa.
  • Rule 2: Every agent's use is some other agent's source, and vice versa.
The first rule is just about keeping track of where the money goes when you receive it (or where it comes from when you spend it). The second rule ties every agent in the economy together.
We put the goods and services "above the line." The other three categories of sources and uses are below-the-line financial accounts. What's possible above the line (goods and services) is determined by what happens below the line (financial). This MOOC focuses mostly on what's below the line.
We don't revisit sources and uses much in later lectures, but have a look at this blog post by Daniel Neilson for more intuition on sources and uses.

Part 7: Payment Example: Money and Credit

In this part, we use sources and uses to compare a cash payment to a credit card payment. I've also translated the examples into balance sheets, so we can see how the two notations map onto each other. We can use the Clavero color-coding convention for both.
Here's the simpler cash payment:
And here's the balance-sheet version:
It's just an asset swap. Each party ends up with what the other party started with.
Here's the balance-sheet version of the credit card payment:
And the sources-and-uses version:
The two main parties (Perry and Vareli) ended up with what the other person started with. But more complicated stuff happened along the way.
I've also partitioned the balance into time periods starting from top to bottom. The sources and uses, on the other hand, are partitioned by their categories.
Notice that each issuance is paired up with its eventual set-off. This is possible because the credit expansion that facilitated the payment eventually contracted back down.
Several different credit-related transactions happen "below the line." These transactions don't directly buy goods and services, but they ultimately facilitate payments for goods and services that take place "above the line." Paying attention to what happens below the line can help us understand what happens above the line.
Mehrling's lecture notes further break down the Vareli credit card payment example into separate sources and uses diagrams for the three steps. We can do that here using our payment-type color coding.
First, Perry makes the credit payment to get the dinner.
The Goods line represents a "payment by assignment" of the dinner. The asset and debt lines together represent an "IOU swap."
Vareli settles with Mastercard at the end of the day—and the end of every day.
Perry settles with Mastercard at the end of the month—and the end of every month.
Balance-sheet liabilities (financial debts) only ever represent a specific type of use: repayment. Liabilities represent time patterns of future cash commitments. You have promised to repay at various times in the future. You could also novate the asset to repay it sooner.
If you fail to match your previously committed use with a corresponding source, you've failed to meet your cash commitment with a cash flow. You've defaulted.
Financial assets represent a specific type of source: liquidation. The asset's time pattern of cash flows is a time pattern of liquidation. You could also sell the asset to liquidate it sooner.
Since we haven't seen novation on a sources and uses table, let's do that now. When a payment is made in the banking system, a portfolio transfer happens between banks. Here it is in sources and uses:
For Bank A, the dishoarding of reserves is the source of funds used to repay the deposits. Notice that there's no set-off happening here. The debt still exists. It's just been transferred to Bank B.
For Bank B, the borrowing of deposits is the source of funds, which are hoarded as reserves. Again, the borrowing doesn't happen through the issuance of new debt. It happens through acquiring deposit liabilities that Bank A previously held (novation).
We have yet to see hierarchy/alchemy in a sources and uses table, so let's do that now. Below is an example from Mehrling that's not in the lectures.
Notice that the bank is borrowing as its source of funds. The corresponding use of funds for the borrower is hoarding. Hierarchy is the only case when hoarding and dishoarding are not paired in rule #2. In this case, the bank is above the borrower.

Part 8: Flow of Funds Accounts

In NIPA accounts, the emphasis is on value added and employment, so we focus on final production. But used goods are also exchanged, and also financial assets. These exchanges are shunted off to one side by NIPA but are at the same level of analysis in FoF. Indeed, in FoF the sale of goods and the sale of assets are equivalent ways of achieving a source of funds.—Lecture Notes
In a way the Keynesian framework grows from the quantity theory, with C+I+G+X-M serving as a kind of disaggregation of MV, and Y serving as a specification of a subset of PT. Copeland wanted to go even farther but he did not win out. Actual macroeconomic debate was between Keynesians and monetarists, and FoF remained a specialty interest for those who wanted to track developments in the financial world (below the line).—Lecture Notes
If we pretend that the payment system is a "pure money" system, then an expansion of credit just looks like an increase in the velocity of the fixed amount of money.
The Flow of Funds accounts exhibit statistical discrepancies partly because it's impossible to record all financial promises, agreements, and expectations on balance sheets. And they were designed before financial innovations such as derivatives.
We can still conceptualize any of these things as being on an implicit balance sheet. But to the extent that we regulate what's on firms' explicit balance sheets, it can push financial arrangements off the explicit balance sheet.

Part 9: The Survival Constraint, Redux

The central concern from a banking perspective is not solvency but liquidity, i.e., the survival constraint. Are current cash inflows sufficient to cover current cash outflow commitments? If yes, then we satisfy the survival constraint.—Lecture Notes
Credit allows us to delay the settlement/survival/reserve constraint.
Of the sources of funds, only dishoarding is dependable during a crisis. If you have the money you can always dishoard it to make a payment. To sell an asset (or a good), or to borrow, you need a buyer or a lender. Market liquidity and funding liquidity require counterparties.

Part 10: Liquidity, Long and Short

The key to Minsky is the alignment of cashflows and commitments in time. The economy consists of a web of interconnected agents with patterns of cash inflow and patterns of cash commitments going out into the future. Liquidity constraints anticipated in the future have consequences for today.
Because banks borrow short and lend long, they're always potentially vulnerable to cashflow mismatches (i.e. liquidity problems). In Minsky's terminology, banks are never "hedge units." They can't be. They always have to worry about rolling over their funding.
Agents that are under liquidity stress (i.e. up against the survival constraint) have to borrow. In this case, borrowing has nothing to do with time preferences or information about the market. It's not a choice.

Part 11: Financial Fragility, Flows and Stocks
We're used to balance sheets representing stocks of assets and liabilities. Flows represent changes in those assets and liabilities. Expected future flows tell us how the balance sheets are expected to change in the future.
Stocks represent residuals of past cashflows and promises of future cashflows. The balance between the pattern of cashflows and cash commitments is important for individuals, but also important for the economy as a whole.
Crisis shows up in the money-market rate of interest as agents under liquidity stress become desperate and bid up the price of liquidity.
Solvency problems can become liquidity problems and liquidity problems can become solvency problems.
For our purposes the question of solvency is interesting mainly as an outer bound on the credit limit facing each agent. Intuitively it makes sense that that credit limit will be somehow related to the net worth. Solvent agents have unused borrowing power on their balance sheets which they can potentially mobilize to make payments. Thus we can see how asset price fluctuations can cause fluctuations in borrowing power, which might have consequences for immediate liquidity. Solvency problems can easily become liquidity problems. —Lecture Notes
Please post any questions and comments below. We will have a one-hour live discussion of Lecture 3 and Lecture 4 on Monday May 29th at 2:00pm EDT.
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2023.05.29 13:56 duizacrossthewater Is it necessary to work in an AI-related field for a while to gain empirical experience before conducting research in this field?

Hi everyone,
I'm a Political Science major with a research interest in the governance of artificial intelligence. I'm currently in the process of applying to PhD programs in political science, and I'm wondering if prior experience in an AI-related field is necessary for conducting research in this area.
I'm aware that there are a number of PhD programs that offer specializations in AI and politics, and I'm also aware that there are a number of research opportunities available to PhD students in this area. However, I'm not sure if prior experience working in an AI-related field is required for these programs and research opportunities.
I'm hoping that some of you who are currently working in this area can provide me with some insights. What are your thoughts on the importance of prior experience working in an AI-related field for PhD students who are interested in conducting research in the governance of AI?
I'm looking forward to hearing your thoughts on this topic. Thanks in advance for your help!
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2023.05.29 13:43 predictany007 The debt limit agreement includes a debt limit suspension until January 1st, 2025

U.S. President Joe Biden and top congressional Republican Kevin McCarthy reached a tentative deal to suspend the federal government's $31.4 trillion debt ceiling on Saturday evening, ending a months-long stalemate.
However, the deal was announced without any celebration, in terms that reflected the bitter tenor of the negotiations and the difficult path it has to pass through Congress before the United States runs out of money to pay its debts in early June.
"I just got off the phone with the president a bit ago. After he wasted time and refused to negotiate for months, we've come to an agreement in principle that is worthy of the American people," McCarthy tweeted.
Biden called the deal "an important step forward" in a statement, saying: "The agreement represents a compromise, which means not everyone gets what they want. That’s the responsibility of governing."
The deal would suspend the debt limit through January of 2025, while capping spending in the 2024 and 2025 budgets, claw back unused COVID funds, speed up the permitting process for some energy projects and includes some extra work requirements for food aid programs for poor Americans.
After months of back-and-forth, the tentative agreement came together in a flurry of calls. Biden and McCarthy held a 90-minute phone call earlier on Saturday evening to discuss the deal, McCarthy briefed his members later in the evening, and the White House and the House leader spoke afterward.
"We still have more work to do tonight to finish the writing of it," McCarthy told reporters on Capitol Hill. McCarthy said he expects to finish writing the bill on Sunday, then speak to Biden and have a vote on the deal on Wednesday.
Full article:
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2023.05.29 13:41 12steps4life Monday, May 29, 2023 l Non-Real-time Meeting of OA

Welcome to this non-real time meeting of Overeaters Anonymous!
I’m 12Steps4life. I’m a compulsive eater and your leader for this meeting.
Will those who wish, please join me in the Serenity Prayer:
God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.
Overeaters Anonymous is a Fellowship of individuals who, through shared experience, strength, and hope, are recovering from compulsive overeating. We welcome everyone who wants to stop eating compulsively. There are no dues or fees for members; we are self-supporting through our own contributions, neither soliciting nor accepting outside donations. OA is not affiliated with any public or private organization, political movement, ideology, or religious doctrine; we take no position on outside issues. Our primary purpose is to abstain from compulsive eating and compulsive food behaviors and to carry the message of recovery through the Twelve Steps of OA to those who still suffer.
Our Invitation to You
The Twelve Traditions of Overeaters Anonymous
Abstinence in Overeaters Anonymous is the action of refraining from compulsive eating and compulsive food behaviors while working towards or maintaining a healthy body weight. Spiritual, emotional, and physical recovery is the result of living the Overeaters Anonymous Twelve Step program.
The OA tools of recovery help us work the Steps and refrain from compulsive overeating. The nine tools are: a plan of eating, sponsorship, meetings, telephone, writing, literature, an action plan, anonymity, and service. For more information, read The Tools of Recovery OA page.
Sponsorship is one of our keys to success. Sponsors are OA members committed to abstinence and to living the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions to the best of their ability. Sponsors share their program up to the level of their experience and strengthen their recovery through this service to others. To find a sponsor, look for someone who has what you want and ask how he or she is achieving it. Will all abstinent sponsors please identify themselves in their post?
According to our Seventh Tradition, we are self-supporting through our own contributions. Our group number is 99038. Please use the group number when making your contribution. As our virtual group currently has no expenses please consider donating directly through this link to the OA World Service Office, who provides resources for OA groups all around the world to carry the message to other compulsive over-eaters.
Suggested guidelines for sharing: As you share your experience and strength in OA, please also share your hope. Please confine your sharing to your experience with the disease of compulsive eating, the solution offered by OA, and your own recovery from the disease, rather than just the events of the day or week. When responding to other member’s posts, please focus on your personal experience rather than advice giving. If you are having difficulties, share how you use the program to deal with them. If you need to talk more about your difficulties and seek solutions, we suggest you speak to your sponsor and other members after the meeting.
This is a literature meeting. Today we are studying the Big Book of Alcoholics Anonymous, Chapter 4, We Agnostics, Pages 54-55
We had to ask ourselves why we shouldn't apply to our human problems the same readiness to change our point of view. We were having trouble with personal relationships, we couldn't control our emotional natures, we were a prey to misery and depression, we couldn't make a living, we had a feeling of uselessness, we were full of fear, we were unhappy, we couldn't seem to be of real help to other people - was not a basic solution of these bedevilments more important than whether we should see newsreels of lunar flight? Of course it was.
When we saw others solve their problems by a simple reliance upon the spirit of the universe, we had to stop doubting the power of God. Our ideas did not work. But the God idea did.
The Wright brothers' almost childish faith that they could build the machine which would fly was the mainspring of their accomplishment. Without that, nothing could have happened. We agnostics and atheists were sticking to the idea that self-sufficiency would solve our problems. When others showed us that "God-sufficiency" worked with them, we began to feel like those who insisted the Wrights would never fly.
By following the Twelve Steps, attending meetings regularly, and using the OA Tools, we are changing our lives. You will find hope and encouragement in Overeaters Anonymous. To the newcomer, we suggest attending at least six different meetings to learn the many ways OA can help you. The opinions expressed here today are those of individual OA members and do not represent OA as a whole. Let us all reach out by private message to newcomers, returning members, and each other. Together we get better.
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2023.05.29 13:40 MovieGames Game? Retro. AI? Modernized - Beyond Sunset

Game? Retro. AI? Modernized - Beyond Sunset
Hi all!
Beyond Sunset is a retro game at core, yes, but it can’t play like a retro game. Today, simplified AI behavior just wouldn’t fly. Enemies can’t stumble around half-randomly, with their only objective being looking for you. This “stumbling” is something you can notice easily in the original Doom. We wanted to avoid it. So what did we do?
We focused on changing the pathfinding and in general, on letting our enemies make decisions. Their choices are made via a behavior tree: a branching path of actions that an actor can take, resulting from each other. It’s a standard thing in gaming, but not in retro games, and not in games based on the Doom engine. We believe that we are the first to implement Behavior Trees in GZDoom.
Why is it important? Not just because the effect is visible: our enemies are smarter, react to your actions instead of following a simple pattern. Also, for us, their actions are much easier to program. We use a visual editor to create their branching behavioral paths. This makes creating their “personalities” much, much more convenient. See how it looks:
As a result, you can experience much more exciting (and vertical) combat scenarios than in older Doom-based games. We also use these trees to create the AI for non-combatants so that we can add life to our game world. Not everyone is your enemy, not everyone is there to kill. This design concept was first used in the underrated gem Strife many years ago, but we hope to take it to the next level.
If you’re a modder or a GZDoom game creator, here’s something important for you: we’ll make our behavior trees open source very soon. It’s one of the best things about Doom and GZDoom: we can share our knowledge and findings, and help each other create better, more amazing games!
Wishlist and follow us for more Beyond Sunset and GZDoom goodness:
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2023.05.29 13:39 Johnny_Boy398 Africa Rework: The Leopard of the Congo Mobutu Sese Seko

Africa Rework: The Leopard of the Congo Mobutu Sese Seko
(This is part of an ongoing series, links to which will be posted in the comments below)
The Nationalists of the “Mouvement Authenticité de la Révolution” (MAR)
Who is Mobutu Sese Seko? Just another warlord who got a lucky break? A champion of the nation willing to do what is necessary for unity and freedom? A traitor to the people who was happy to crack congolese heads until his pay got cut? A revolutionary Father-Marshal or a reactionary kleptocrat? No one can say for sure, but when the Congo war begins in 1966 it will become clear what he wishes himself to be: the great liberator, unifyer, and undisputed master of the great Congo nation. And with Japanese help he may just pull it off. But no man is born great, and even the Fuhrer does not rule alone. So let us discover how Mobutu came to be, and what his victory will mean for the Congo and Africa at large.
For the Japanese, who will become his greatest supporters and headaches, he is the African Oda Nobunaga: a martial and cruel man whose vision for unity and glory far outweighs whatever sins he may have committed. Always one for the cameras and adept at winning over an audience, Mobutu will successfully win over the Japanese public by playing the role of the justly tyrannical “Great Man”, even while he personally prefers western delicacies.
Joseph-Désiré Mobutu lived an unremarkable life before being thrust into greatness. He was only 16 when the Congo was violently transferred from Belgian to German hands, and like many rebellious students he joined in the 1949 protests against the construction of the Congo dam, stowing away from boarding school to do so. In the aftermath of the MNC repression Mobutu was assigned to the still technically Belgian controlled Force Publique as punishment. Unlike many of his fellows however Mobutu immediately took to military life, embracing the strength, discipline and martial values it provided. In part because of this he served without noticeable disobedience, and was even bribed to be an informant on clandestine communist cells within the force, ratting out a few of his “comrades”. From the point of view of the Belgians he was a model soldier. But this was an act: in truth Mobutu never ceased holding resentment for his arrogant Belgian commanders or the priests who had “educated” him. Behind their back he was a contributor to the native underground press, writing under assumed names and attacking the Belgian presence. It came as quite a shock then when in 1955, as his mandated time in the force was drawing to a close, Mobutu did not accept demobilization quietly but instead went into revolt. It is still a matter of debate about what pushed him into this. He claims that this had been the plan all along, while cynics say the impending annexation of the belgian Congo by Zentralafrika forced him into it. Some think that his double life was about to be exposed, while the more conspiratorial leftists say that he never went into rebellion at all, and that his “revolt” was ordered by the Belgians as a way to counter the APL insurgency. But whatever the case it was here that the public figure was born.
After killing several belgian officers and stealing as many weapons and valuables as they could Mobutu and his co-conspirators quickly fled east. This was not entirely unusual: the sudden annexation of the colony led to many sporadic demonstrations and revolts. But it immediately became clear that Mobutu had larger ambitions than these local disturbances. His strategy at this time was one of survival: he would only accept those who could move fast and hit hard, with his armed band always staying on the move as they fled to the east. But unlike other petty warlords he understood the importance of a political and social message for his long term survival, as well as local alliances. For this he essentially copied the platform of the now underground MNC while adhering to none of its tenants in reality: he would tell the people whatever they wanted to hear so long as it got him what he wanted. More practically he made tight alliances with local eastern notables as well as Tutsi refugees which had fled reprisals to the east. In this he was successful, forging for himself a loose alliance in the north east which permitted him to slip the noose where so many others were eventually caught.
One of his most important lieutenants in these early days was Victor Nendaka Bika, his de facto “foreign minister” and torturer who would make initial contact with those Mobutu saw the need to coerce or charm. Unlike many warlords Mobutu never gave into the temptation to rule by fear alone, instead seeking to co-opt useful men into his own organization. But he was just as happy to let loose his jackal to show the consequences of disloyalty.
These early years from 1956-1962 were defined at first by mere survival: banditry, illegal trade and bribery were the only ways to stay alive. But slowly, with plenty of self promotion to help it, Mobutu’s reputation as a survivor and a winner grew locally, and then regionally. As the remnants of failed rebels and warlords drifted into his growing camp Mobutu was able to step beyond being a bandit king and into becoming a local powerbroker. He had already made himself the allied protector of the Tutsi refugees, and soon after the APL’s protracted people's war in the north began he sought to become the patron of his own native Ngbandi people as well. Where he had the most power in the eastern fringes the pan-Africanist APL held the north, with the Ngbandi in the middle still “up for grabs” between the APL, Mobutu and the German administration. It is here that he first developed his own separate political platform: unwilling or unable to come to an agreement with either of the other two factions Mobutu began developing his own ideology of an “authentic” congolese nationalism which was opposed to both pan-african and communist radicalism, “self defeating” regionalism and demanded the full liberation of the congo from european imperialism. But most importantly to those who heard his call was for unity under Mobutu: if the African people remained divided and timid they would be slaves forever, and only a great leader like Mobutu could bring them true liberty. As one may expect, this call for subordination won him very few new friends.
The see-saw of influence in the Congo north and east is set to be radically upended in 1962, as kommissar Krogmann finally thinks he has enough stability in the west to launch a pacification campaign. In this he will be superficially successful: all anti-German factions will be forced to retreat and large swaths of land will be returned to German control. But it will not accomplish its primary objective of capturing and killing the leadership: Mobutu will once again avoid the hangman and will return when the Zentralafrika army goes marching south to the SAW. And when he does it will be with a new purpose. Much of his army was scattered or deserted by the German offensive, with many of the local allies he thought were in his hands all but begging to come to terms with the Germans after he was forced out. He had survived yes, but only by the skin of his teeth: this time he would do things differently. Taking lessons from the APL he will return in 1964 as a popular revolutionary rather than as a mere warlord with a printing press. Though still not fully developed it is here that “Joseph-Désiré” would become “Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga” or “The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake”. A new ideology of “Authentic” nationalism came with this new name, seeking to truly win over the hearts of the people as well as the loyalty of their leaders. It was a threat and a promise, as he would go about tearing down symbols of westernism in his wake and giving personal “gifts” to people or organizations which he wished to win over. He also sought to portray himself as an avenging angel, throwing “bad actors” such as denounced priests and hated collaborators against the wall.
This new ideology, disseminated through the “Manifesto of Goma” is long in emotion and short in concrete policy. As such it was quickly denounced by the intellectuals of the Pan-Africanists and Liberals as not a “real” ideology and merely a cheap populism. But it is taken deadly seriously by the newly declared Mouvement Authenticité de la Révolution: for its supporters it promises a true rebirth of the congolese people from within rather than without. The Congo would be purged of malignant western influence by remaking the congolese individual in body, mind and spirit. This was the way to true freedom and dignity, far more than mere “material conditions” or to ape their constitutions.
With his newfound identity and strategy Mobutu will of course be a prime target for Huttig’s retribution, but as is always the case too few men and not enough supplies will stop Huttig from ever putting him down for good. Plus Mobutu had found a new friend: the Japanese. In the immediate aftermath of Huttig’s takeover the Japanese will support the APL, but will quickly grow disenchanted: the naked radicalism and distrustful nature of the APL will lead to the Japanese looking for a more reliable partner, and Mobutu will aggressively angle to become just that. After having been rejected by the Americans in favor of the MNC Mobutu is the only big game left in the Congo for Japan to back, and was always a master at co-option and personal magnetism. He will charm the Japanese mission to sing his praises in Tokyo, even if there is little they can do for him at the moment. This will change when Huttig dies: taking a gamble Mobutu will strike at Stanleyville, successfully forcing the retreating garrison to leave behind most of their weapons and capturing an airport through which he will finally have solid connections with the outside world. The bad blood between him and the MNC and APL will mean that there is no choice but to fight it out as the Congo war begins in 1966, this time with Japan backing him to the hilt.
Mobutu now seeks to become a legend. Already having gained a personal mythos after having been declared dead by the Germans several times, his wartime strategy will be to force the mass mobilization of the population. Under his personal name and with the backing of Japan he will force every man who comes under his control into his army, seeking to form a tidal wave of men which will overwhelm his enemies and make up for his lack of supply. If an enemy cannot be rooted out with simple force of numbers, it will be the job of his all Ngbandi “Leopard Division” or even better of Japanese “volunteers” to root them out. The success of this strategy is heavily dependent on momentum, and will rely on Japanese backing to arm itself. But if it is successful Zentralafrika will be no more, and neither will the Congo: The Republic of Zaire will rise as the newest power in Africa under the leadership of the nation's great guide: Mobutu Sese Seko. After a partial demobilization and a reconfirming of his alliance with “internal allies” such as the Tutsi under François Rukeba and the Bakongo under Holden Roberto he will initiate a grand campaign of national revolution and self aggrandizement: Zairianization.
Asian inspired architecture of the newly built Presidential Palace. Among those celebrating the creation of Zaire will be the Japanese. All sides have poured a great deal of resources into the conflict, and the victory of Mobutu will doubtless be a strategic boon for Japanese influence on the continent. Mobutu for his part recognizes the usefulness of his new “friends”, but neither side is blinded by the propaganda: the dangers and opportunities of Nationalism are all too familiar.
As mentioned in my previous post there are several common issues which any native unifyer must account for. The first among these is The Looming Famine: in the aftermath of years of war and mismanagement the supply of food to urban areas is critically unstable. And it is in this issue that the weaknesses of Mobutu’s regime will first be seen. Mobutu’s agricultural reform centers mostly on seizing land owned by the whites and his political enemies, and then redistributing it to himself, his political allies, and occasionally to the people. As everything with the Zairean revolution the purpose is twofold: to meet the needs of the people and to entrench Mobutu's personal political power. But often the second goal far outstrips the first: many of the people who gain this land do not know how to use the land productively, or if they do, are more interested in producing cash crops than they are in food staples. This is certainly the case for the massive amounts of land brought under Mobutu’s personal ownership, which will most often continue to grow the same way as the colonial plantations they were before. This reckless reorganization and focus on exports ensure that hunger will be an early and acute crisis for Zaire. The issue will be solved slowly, as roads are repaired and the rhythm of agricultural life is no longer disrupted by war, but the people need food now and more than anything else it is cassava and rice which the people demand from their leaders.
It is by meeting this need that Japanese influence first becomes a powerful thing. Though motivated in part by genuine charity from well off Asians, the provision of food and aid is also cynically used by the Japanese state to buy the support of the people and the local power brokers away from Mobutu, and towards themselves. This aid, plus the government's own subsidies of food imports, plus the natural healing from war, will lead to the crisis fading away but leaving all sides on notice that the future of Zaire is still being made, and that the Japanese are a major player in it.
The Mutilated Independence: The inability of Mobutu to take Leopoldville during the independence war is a blow to Mobutu’s prestige, not to mention Zaire as a whole. However he is pragmatic enough and has enough friends in Japan to hash out a deal with Nigeria and Gabon: the loss of the major port will not strangle Congolese exports or imports, only make them more expensive. But for both political and economic reasons the retaking of Leopoldville and the Kabinda port remain absolutely vital to the continued reign of Mobutu. To this end Mobutu’s solution to retaking Leopoldville is direct conquest, not because he can think of no other option but because it will give him the greatest personal prestige as a great conqueror. As such along with his policy of “Zairianization” and economic consolidation he will also invest a great deal into the army.
This army will see its strength tested as Mobutu tries to expand his influence beyond the Zaireian borders. Gabon may be protected by America, but unleashing blitz style attacks on Angola and Rwanda is fair game. In Angola he will seek to set up Holden Roberto as a fellow autocratic “Authenticité” leader by supporting his meager army against the warring angolan factions in an attempted knockout blow. In Rwanda he will need to be somewhat more cautious (unless something very bad happens) but ultimately seeks to return Kigeli V to the throne on the backs of his long time exile allies. In this way he will both expand his influence as well as surround Leopoldville with friendly regimes. When the oil crisis hits Mobutu will leap at the opportunity to crush the Germans by launching an all out assault on “Festung Leopoldville”, and if successful will greatly increase his prestige, as well as rehabilitate his image in the eyes of other revolutionary leaders as a “true revolutionary”. If he fails in these wars however he will decline, and need to lean ever more heavily on Japan to prop himself up. This is somewhat awkward for Japan itself: having previously backed leftist movements as their best options they must now choose between their old allies and the new anti-leftist gambles taken by Mobutu. But despite the heartburn Zaire is simply too valuable in the african chaos for Japan to not continue supporting it, and so the rising sun shall backstab their allies in the name of pragmatism to the benefit of Mobutu. And besides, these new factions typically promess a better deal than the socialists did.
Mobutu walks a fine line in African politics: though he has denounced the APL’s brand of pan-africanism he also wishes to be seen as a great revolutionary. Surrounded as he is by pan-african or otherwise revolutionary movements it is only good sense to say you are one of them. And to many Mobutu is just that: a liberating revolutionary who both freed and united great swaths of africa from pernicious white influence. But for the wider Marxist inspired world of African liberation his clear anti-communist is difficult to accept, no matter how well he speaks the language of pan-african pride.
Lingering Regionalism: In this question Mobutu is the most radical, and his policy is what you may know him for OTL. While all revolutionaries desire to establish a united identity, and some of them will do so by autocratic centralization, Mobutu makes the establishment of a “true” Zaireian nation a core part of his rule. As established in the Manifesto of Goma Mobutu promesses a national revolution in which regionalism will be swept away by a new, authentic program of nation building which will decolonize the Congolese mind as well as their hands. In practical terms this means the creation of a totalitarian state which will regulate and make “african” all aspects of life. Western influence will be attacked via the banning of christian names and nationalizing catholic church property. A citizen dress code will be implemented as well as a “traditional” family code which will favor male-dominated polygamy and property laws. Though his own praetorian guard of the leopard division is tribally biased the army as a whole will have a new organization forbidding any unit to be more than 20% uniform in tribal origin. This campaign is carried out with special zeal against the influence of Catholicism. Seeing it as both a challenge to his own power and as a malignant foreign influence Mobutu will make a great show of putting priests on trial and instructing his followers to declare that Mubutu is like Jesus and the MAR like the church. Schools, previously run almost exclusively by religious organizations, will be nationalized and their curriculum no longer permitted to teach Christianity but instead to teach “Mobutuism”. Though he will not have the strength needed to wipe out the church entirely during the 60s or early 70s Mobutu will be able to effectively cow this institution and dare any priest to say “sacrilege”.
This campaign will provide a degree of unity, pride and self confidence to the shattered nation beyond what any other program could do, but it is all provided through the image of Mobutu as the great sun king of the new nation. Mobutu will seek to become the center of a pseudo-religious cult of personality with mass public celebrations of his figure following him wherever he goes and an entourage singing songs in his praise.
A consequence of the personalism in this campaign is than any embarrassing failures will not only reflect poorly on the nation but on Mobutu himself. As such he will often get worked up by seemingly trivial matters: if the football team should be lucky enough to participate in the world cup they will do so under the threat that if they do not perform well enough it will see retribution on them at home.
But as part of building this cult he must never let any other person, even his own children, get a moment in the spotlight. Below him is transient chaos, while above him is none: he alone is the rock on which Zaire can be built. This policy is most clearly seen in his handling of the Warlord Plague. Here Mobutu has a two sided policy: All those military figures which he believes could pose a threat to his rule will at first be executed publicly and brutally. In the opening months of his reign he will institute a mini reign of terror to make an example of many warlords and political enemies. However, once the example has been made he will move on to a policy of co-opting these same men. Often through direct bribery, or through positions of prestige and other perks, local strongmen who will accept his rule are brought into the state machine by promising the opportunity to profit in exchange for loyalty. This opportunity is often revoked without notice or reason and personal rivalry at the top is encouraged: in this way no other individual is able to form a stable powerbase. But at the same time individuals previously kicked out of power may be rehabilitated just as quickly, rising once again to wealth and prestige on the auspices of Mobutu’s favor. In this way no elite is a permanent outsider, and the best move for many will seem to be “wait and see”. This of course makes the internal administration of the nation hell, but it does keep Mobutu in undisputed power without even the glimmer of a rival.
This policy of personal co-option extends even to The Belgian Question. The Europeans remaining property will be nationalized and they will be deported, but it will not come with the punitive brutality of the pan-africanists. Mobutu has no love for the Belgians, and will not tolerate their continued dominance, but he also has no special hatred for them, seeing them mostly as political liabilities and rivals rather than ideology defining enemies: that distinction goes to the Germans. But after this show of nationalistic force the door will be left open to their return: many of the nationalized properties are redistributed to those without the knowledge, skill or desire to maintain their productivity. As such when those same Europeans are offered the chance to buy back their property or even return to the Congo Mobutu will not get in their way: so long as they avoid getting lynched along the way by Mobutu’s notoriously brutal and poorly disciplined soldiers he will let them have their piece too so long as they accept that it is by his grace alone that they keep it.
Part of this leniency is out of a calculated mercy to Europeans: Mobutu is smart enough to know that making himself solely reliant on Japan is a poor strategy, and will seek to make connections with America, Italy and Brazil. Having mercy on the Belgians and keeping the door open to cooperation with the Euros is an easy way to mollify western opinion and thus maintain his own independence on the world stage. Of course even this policy has limits: Germany and those under her will see the door slammed shut.
Which brings us neatly into the great struggle which defines the early Mobutu regime: addressing the Economic Devastation. In keeping with his Authenticité program Mobutu wishes to nationalize all previously foreign owned industry, which is the vast majority of all industry, under the one-party state. These national corporations, modeled off of the Japanese Zaibatsu and Italian corporatism, will be either controlled directly by Mobutu, by his close political allies, or (to his own displeasure) by East Asians, most often the Japanese. Mobutu’s Japanese backers are willing to prop up his regime, to allow whatever social and political organization he wishes, but they have come to the Congo for a reason. That reason is money and resources, and with Authenticité pushing for the cartelization of all money in the Congo the Japanese demand to be let in. Mobutu cannot simply dismiss them: it is Japanese credit and weapons which ensure he stays secure and on top. But he is also unwilling to simply roll over for them: he is a nationalist and a deeply ambitious man, and will not be satisfied with anything less than personal ownership of the Zaire economy. As such the 60s and early 70s will be a contest between true Mobutu loyalists and pro-Japanese opportunists for who will gain a majority share of the new nation's economic resources. Japan offers cash, guns, food, technical advisors and diplomatic support (all of which Zaire really needs) in return for shares in the national corporations and local extractions. They will also play dirty by employing bribes, intimidation tactics, organized crime and even clandestine support of anti-mobutu civil resistance to put pressure on the regime to open up more space for the Japanese. To counter this Mobutu has all the tools of the state at his disposal, as well as the mobilization of his own hard core group of supporters for intimidation or political pressure on local leaders.
“Kazi ndjo baba, ndjo mama” (work, it is my father, it is my mother), is a common phrase in Katanga which alludes to the paternalist role played by large companies such as the Union Minière, which would provide housing, education, and sometimes even wives to their workers in exchange for productive loyalty. Even after the full German takeover “company work” maintained a facade of this relationship. Japan is well positioned to take up the old Union Minière paternalism tactics, offering workers higher and more regular pay than what native organizations sometimes can, while also reinforcing a culture of dependency which Mobutu is trying to break (or bend to his own ends).
It is this contest for the hard cash and rare metals provided by the Congo which will determine the final form the Authenticité regime takes. If Mobutu is victorious and secures the lion's share of the economy for himself and a large enough share for his allies the Zairean Revolution will be complete with major bonuses to stability and political power, and even more importantly to Mobutu’s personal fortune. Though never giving public access to his personal books Mobutu will be plausibly rumored to be worth billions, with he and his family being some of the foremost african business people in the world and minor celebrities in the co-prosperity sphere. However the economy will suffer greatly from this as all economic efficiency and business skill has been sacrificed in the name of Mobutu’s personal power: though he is the undisputed master of Zaire it will be a deeply dysfunctional country economically, and if commodity prices were to fall he may need to go crawling back to the outside world to bail him out. On the other hand if Japan wins Zaire will become a neo-colonial strip, with its most lucrative industries owned in part or in full by the Japanese and the state unable to do anything about it without critically undermining its own elite support. This will make Mobutu into only a multi-millionaire rather than a billionaire, as well as undermine his public image of all powerful invincibility. With the Japanese ambassador keeping a hawkish eye on him and his party Mobutu will be left to stew in his unhappy lot knowing that if he ceases to play the part assigned to him the Japanese can always find someone else. This will also be the end of the Authentice campaign as even uneducated workers can see that their bread comes not from “Father Marshal” but from their places of work, owned by foreigners once again. But it is arguably better economically, as the extractive industries are at least run competently and its workers will be paid in full and on time more often. In all cases Zaire will be a sphere observer, but in this case it will be a part of the Japanese economic sphere as well. The later 70s and 80s will be difficult times for either end as prices crash and the cumulative effects of bad government and foreign domination come to the fore. But that is a story for another day.
Japan or Mobutu, success or failure, unity or farce, one thing remains constant: the Zairean military officers are the new nobility of the new nation. Corruption is an endemic and potentially crippling issue in Zaire, and this is seen most clearly in the military, where officers will steal wages and army units will act close to bandits in the more remote regions, creating an atmosphere of fear. But the best position is that of an Air Force officer, with prominent families often paying through the nose for their sons to be educated in Japanese military academies to earn their wings.
submitted by Johnny_Boy398 to TNOmod [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:34 Ihavenoidea-789 Calculating shipping cost using if else other way

Hello there!
I have been trying to code a program where in the user is prompted to enter a weight of a package in pounds then depending on the weight, it will be multiplied by cost.
Here's my code:
import java.util.Scanner;
public class chapter4 {
public static void main (String[] arguments){
Scanner input = new Scanner(;
System.out.print("Enter weight in pounds: ");
double weight = input.nextDouble();
double cost;
if (weight > 0 && weight <= 1)
cost = 3.5* weight;
System.out.println("The shipping cost is: " + cost);
else if (weight <= 3 && weight > 1)
cost = 5.5 * weight;
System.out.println("The shipping cost is: " + cost);
else if (weight > 3 && weight <= 10)
cost = weight * 8.5;
System.out.println("The shipping cost is: " + cost);
else if (weight > 10 && weight <= 20)
cost = weight * 10.5;
System.out.println("The shipping cost is: " + cost);
This program is working fine but my issue here is that I am giving statement in each condition. I want to have the print statement only one time at the last line if let the code be
cost = weight * 10.5;
System.out.println("The shipping cost is: " + cost);
then in this case if the user enters a number greater than 20 it will show a result when it shouldn't.
So, I thought what if I use ternary operation and display a message to the user that you should enter a value less than 20. It did that but also multiplied the cost. I don't know how to separate these two
System.out.println((weight > 10 && weight <= 20) ? "" : " PLease enter less than 20 ") + "The shipping cost is: " + cost);
I am sorry about the long post but if anyone could help, it will be really great.
Thank you so much!
submitted by Ihavenoidea-789 to javahelp [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:31 TherealMicahlive TDA @ IT AGAIN WITH THE $500** Direct Registration Fee (TMB) plus the easy work around

My mother who has had to listen to me for the past 84 years pulled the trigger last week on her share transfer, or should I say, ATTEMPTED to execute the transfer from TDA to Computershare. They told her that they were going to charge her a $500 fee which was over 50% of her current holding so she did not take the final steps to complete the transfer (simple math right?!). After speaking with me yesterday about the situation, I reminded her that literally 2 years ago, she was listening to me deal with TDA over the phone in an IDENTICAL situation. We then walked through why DRS was important in regards to the OWNERSHIP of the asset and the reasons why they may be pushing back against her transfer.
I personally transferred out of TDA and remember dealing with this as well. They DID NOT CHARGE ME THE FEE when I submitted for the transfer BECAUSE I TRANSFERED TO FIDELITY, then, to Computershare . They DID however try to scare me from doing the transfer: 1) The possibility of a $500 fee against your portfolio 2) Scare tactics when discussing how you will not be able to access funds quickly/ sale and buy quotes are slower 3) Telling you transferring back is a hard process and not worth it..

The process TDA ( and other brokers who use similar tactics) uses is packed with misinformation and is very predatory. Plus it was a headache; but after holding their feet to the fire they DID successfully transfer my shares to Fidelity WITHOUT charging me the fee of 500 , and then I immediately after transferring from TDA > Fidelity transferred all shares to Computershare

TLDR: Transfer from TDA to another broker (Fidelity is who I used) to avoid the 500$ fee > Then DRS from the broker who does not charge stupid fees for holding your shares for you and gambling your money.
submitted by TherealMicahlive to Superstonk [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:31 PegasusPizza Now coming to you, your favourite feature from C++, imported directly into Java with more bugs then ever before. Soon available in no java versions near you or anyone else.

Now coming to you, your favourite feature from C++, imported directly into Java with more bugs then ever before. Soon available in no java versions near you or anyone else. submitted by PegasusPizza to ProgrammerHumor [link] [comments]