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The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap (2005) – A Magical Journey through Minish Lore

2023.06.08 19:38 Isamu0G The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap (2005) – A Magical Journey through Minish Lore

Greetings, adventurers! Today, we delve into the release of The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap, a charming and enchanting entry in the beloved Zelda series. Released in 2005 for the Game Boy Advance, this game introduced players to a unique storyline, captivating gameplay mechanics, and a magical world filled with pint-sized wonder.
Storyline: The Minish Cap follows the adventures of a young hero named Link, as he sets out to rescue Princess Zelda and save the land of Hyrule from the evil sorcerer Vaati. In this game, Link joins forces with the Minish, a tiny race of creatures who are invisible to the human eye, and embarks on a quest to restore the power of the sacred Four Sword and unlock the secrets of the Minish Cap.
Gameplay: The Minish Cap presents a blend of classic Zelda gameplay with new and innovative features. Here are some key elements of the gameplay:
The Minish Cap:
Classic Zelda Action:
Kinstones and Side Quests:
Unique Abilities and Items:
Vaati and the Four Sword:
Visuals and Sound: The Minish Cap boasts charming and colorful visuals that bring the world of Hyrule to life on the Game Boy Advance. The detailed pixel art and expressive character designs capture the whimsical nature of the game, while the memorable soundtrack immerses players in the adventure.
Legacy and Impact: The Minish Cap remains a beloved installment in the Zelda series, praised for its inventive gameplay mechanics and captivating storytelling. Here are some notable aspects of its legacy:
Unique Gameplay Mechanics:
Artistic Style and Presentation:
Introduction of Vaati:
Nostalgic Appeal:
Conclusion: The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap offers a magical journey through a world unseen by the naked eye. With its inventive gameplay mechanics, charming visuals, and engaging storyline, the game stands as a testament to the enduring creativity and enchantment of the Zelda series.
"Urk... Owowow!! I just smacked my hip on something! Well, not my hip... My...whatever it is I have now... My brim? Whatever!" - The Minish Cap
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2023.06.08 18:31 redditduk [MegaList] SG Gigs & Music Concerts: Mid June (9 - 22 Jun 2023)

June 9 Update: Tiny Moving Parts 13-jun cancelled. 12-14 June reddit boycott. Bonus 24-jun-only listing will be hosted off-reddit soon.

9-Jun Fri

 
 

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Ongoing maybe not music

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2023.06.08 14:26 Then_Marionberry_259 JUN 08, 2023 WGO.V WHITE GOLD CORP. FILES TECHNICAL REPORT FOR ITS FLAGSHIP WHITE GOLD PROJECT, SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASING INFERRED RESOURCES BY 41% AND REPORTING 1,152,900 GOLD OUNCES IN INDICATED RESOURCES AND 942,400 GOLD OUNCES IN INFERRED RESOURCES, YUKON, CANADA

JUN 08, 2023 WGO.V WHITE GOLD CORP. FILES TECHNICAL REPORT FOR ITS FLAGSHIP WHITE GOLD PROJECT, SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASING INFERRED RESOURCES BY 41% AND REPORTING 1,152,900 GOLD OUNCES IN INDICATED RESOURCES AND 942,400 GOLD OUNCES IN INFERRED RESOURCES, YUKON, CANADA
https://preview.redd.it/ywnfd5v2fs4b1.png?width=3500&format=png&auto=webp&s=361c650b082d542439800a58257ffd401706d6b8
TORONTO, June 08, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- White Gold Corp. (TSX.V: WGO, OTCQX: WHGOF, FRA: 29W ) (the "Company") is pleased to announce it has filed a technical report in accordance with National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects to update the Mineral Resource Estimate (“MRE”) on its 100% owned flagship White Gold Project (“the Project”). The technical report entitled “2023 Technical Report for the White Gold Project, Dawson Range, Yukon, Canada” and dated May 30, 2023 (effective date April 15, 2023) has been prepared for the Company by Dr. Gilles Arseneau, P.Geo. of ARSENEAU Consulting Services Inc. (“ACS”). The technical report is available on SEDAR (www.sedar.com) under the Company’s issuer profile.
The Project is located approximately 95 km south of Dawson City in west-central Yukon, Canada, and comprises 16 million tonnes averaging 2.23 g/t Au for 1,152,900 ounces of gold in the Indicated Resource category and 19 million tonnes averaging 1.54 g/t Au for 942,400 ounces of gold in the Inferred Resource category. Gold mineralization at the project remains open for expansion along strike and at depth, and opportunities exist to upgrade a significant portion of Inferred Resources to Indicated. Exploration programs supporting the MRE have been backed by partners Agnico Eagle Mines Limited (TSX: AEM, NYSE: AEM) and Kinross Gold Corporation (TSX: K, NYSE: KGC).
“We are very pleased with the significant increase in our mineral resources, which remains open for expansion, ranking the White Gold Project amongst the largest primarily open pit deposits at such high grades in Canada owned by an exploration company. We look forward to continuing exploration on our district scale land package in the prolific White Gold District which hosts several multi-million-ounce deposits along with an extensive history of placer gold production. This updated and increased resource is a testament to the success of our technical team and the effectiveness of our systematic data driven exploration methodologies in exploring and demonstrating the expansiveness of gold mineralization in the White Gold District,” stated David D’Onofrio, CEO.
Highlights:
  • Updated MRE includes four gold deposits (Figures 1-5) – Golden Saddle, Arc, Ryan’s Surprise and VG, within 12 km of each other, and comprises:
    • 16.11 million tonnes of Indicated Resources averaging 2.23 grams per tonne gold for 1.153 million ounces of gold, representing 55% of total resources.
    • 18.99 million tonnes of Inferred Resources averaging 1.54 grams per tonne gold for 0.942 million ounces of gold, representing 45% of total resources.
  • Updated MRE includes a maiden resource estimate for the Ryan’s Surprise deposit with an Inferred Resource of 227,700 ounces of gold averaging 1.97 grams per tonne gold.
  • The Ryan’s Surprise deposit is located 1.5 km west of the Golden Saddle and Arc deposits, and along the Ryan’s Trend, a 6.5 km long gold-arsenic geochemical anomaly which hosts additional prospective gold targets.
  • Inferred Mineral Resources have increased by 41% compared to previous MRE’s for the Golden Saddle and Arc deposits (
in 2020 and the VG deposit (2) in 2021.
  • 94% of the resources are near surface, with open-pittable Indicated Resources of 1.125 million ounces of gold averaging 2.20 grams per tonne gold and open-pittable Inferred Resources of 0.853 million ounces of gold averaging 1.46 grams per tonne gold.
  • Mineralization remains open along strike and down dip, with opportunities to further expand and upgrade resources in addition to multiple underexplored targets in close proximity to the deposits.
  • The Company is currently planning its fully funded 2023 exploration program, focusing on recent high-grade gold discoveries and undrilled targets with details to be announced in due course.
Maps accompanying this news release can be found at https://whitegoldcorp.ca/investors/exploration-highlights/
Mineral Resource Estimate Details
https://preview.redd.it/dijtia13fs4b1.png?width=720&format=png&auto=webp&s=c4314c7da62d6c628e7201cf129b14de57c9a5f5
Mineral Resources which are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. 2) The estimate of Mineral Resources may be materially affected by environmental, permitting, legal, title, taxation, socio-political, marketing, or other relevant issues.
3) The Inferred Mineral Resource in this estimate has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an Indicated Mineral Resource and must not be converted to a Mineral Reserve. It is reasonably expected that the majority of the Inferred Mineral Resource could be upgraded to an Indicated Mineral Resource with continued exploration.
4) The Mineral Resources in this report were estimated using the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (CIM), CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves, Definitions and Guidelines prepared by the CIM Standing Committee on Reserve Definitions and adopted by the CIM Council.
5) Open pittable resources are constrained by GEOVIA Whittle optimized pit shells using a 0.4 g/t Au cut-of grade and are considered to have reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction, assuming a gold price of US$1,800 per ounce, a C$:US$ exchange rate of 0.75. an open pit mining cost of CDN$3.25 per tonne, a processing and G&A cost of CDN$27.50 per tonne milled, and gold recoveries of 92% for Golden Saddle, and VG, along with 85% for Arc and Ryan’s Surprise. Underground resources assume a mining cost of CDN$120/tonne.
6) The following bulk density values for mineralized material were used: Golden Saddle (2.62 – 2.65 t/m 3 ), Arc (2.55 t/m 3 ), Ryan’s Surprise (2.63 t/m 3 ) and VG (2.65 t/m 3 ).
7) High-grade gold assay values have been capped as follows: Golden Saddle and Arc (8 – 18 g/t Au), Ryan’s Surprise (9 g/t Au) and VG (3 – 10 g/t Au).
8) The Statement of Estimates of Mineral Resources has been compiled by Mr. Gilles Arseneau, Ph.D.,P.Geo, of ARSENEAU Consulting Services (“ACS”). Mr. Arseneau has sufficient experience that is relevant to the style of mineralization and type of deposit under consideration and to the activity that he has undertaken to qualify as a Qualified Person as defined in the CIM Standards of Disclosure.
9) All numbers are rounded. Overall numbers may not be exact due to rounding.
Mineralization on portions of both the Golden Saddle and Arc deposits is known to extend beyond the limits of the current resource estimate, however, the mineralization in these areas does not currently meet the criteria to be classified as Mineral Resources. Based on drilling at Golden Saddle and current geologic models, there is an estimated 10 – 12 million additional tonnes grading between 1 – 2 g/t Au of material classified as a Target for Further Exploration (“TFFE”). The reader should be cautioned that the potential quantity and grade of the TFFE is conceptual in nature. There has been insufficient drilling to define a mineral resource and it is uncertain if further exploration will result in the target being advanced to a mineral resource.
The current MRE for the Project was carried out by Arseneau Consulting Services (“ACS”) of Vancouver, B.C. and is reported in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Securities Administrators National Instrument 43-101 (“NI 43-101”) and has been estimated in conformity with generally accepted Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (“CIM”) “Estimation and Mineral Resource and Mineral Reserve Best Practices” guidelines. Mineral resources are not mineral reserves and do not have demonstrated economic viability.
The MRE presents updated estimates for the Golden Saddle and Arc deposits and the VG deposit, and a maiden estimate for the Ryan’s Surprise deposit. The MRE incorporates all diamond and reverse circulation (“RC”) drilling data completed by White Gold Corp. and previous property owners.
Further details on the updated MRE are provided in a Company news release dated April 25, 2023.
Qualified Persons, Technical Information and Quality Control
The MRE for the White Gold Project was prepared by Dr. Gilles Arseneau of Arseneau Consulting Services (ACS), an Independent Qualified Person (“QP”) as defined under NI 43-101, who has reviewed and approved the contents of this news release. The technical content of this news release has also been reviewed and approved by Terry Brace, P.Geo. and Vice President of Exploration for the Company who is also a QP as defined under NI 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure of Mineral Projects.
QA/QC
White Gold’s drill core sampling consisted of collecting samples over 0.50 m to 2.50 m intervals (depending on lithology and style of mineralization) over the entire hole length. RC samples were collected at continuous 1.5 m intervals. All drill core was cut in half using a diamond saw, with half of the core placed in sample bags and the other half returned to the core box. Standard, blank, and duplicate samples were inserted into both the drill core and RC sample streams at regular intervals to meet a designated QA/QC sample insertion rate. All samples were organized into batches, flown via fixed-wing aircraft from camp, and transported via courier to an ISO-certified laboratory for analysis.
About White Gold Corp.
The Company owns a portfolio of 17,584 quartz claims across 30 properties covering approximately 350,000 hectares representing over 40% of the Yukon’s emerging White Gold District. The Company’s flagship White Gold project hosts four near-surface gold deposits which collectively contain an estimated 1,152,900 ounces of gold in Indicated Resources and 942,400 ounces of gold in Inferred Resources ( 1 ) ( 2 ) , and Western Copper and Gold Corporation’s Casino project which has Measured and Indicated Resources of 7.6 Blb Cu and 14.5 Moz Au and Inferred Resources of 3.3 Blb Cu and 6.6 Moz Au ( 3 )
(1) See White Gold Corp. technical report titled “2023 Technical Report for the White Gold Project, Dawson Range, Yukon, Canada ”, Effective Date April 15, 2023, Report Date May 30, 2023, prepared by Dr. Gilles Arseneau, P.Geo., available on SEDAR.
(2) See Newmont Corporation news release titled “Newmont Announces Increased 2022 Mineral Reserves of 96 Million Gold Ounces and 68 Million Gold Equivalent Ounces”, dated February 23, 2023: https://www.newmont.com/investors/news-release/default.aspx
(3) See Western Copper and Gold Corporation technical report titled “Casino project, Form 43-101F1 Technical Report Feasibility Study, Yukon Canada”, Effective Date June 13, 2022, Issue Date August 8, 2022, prepared by Daniel Roth, PE, P.Eng., Mike Hester, F Aus IMM, John M. Marek, P.E., Laurie M. Tahija, MMSA-QP, Carl Schulze, P.Geo., Daniel Friedman, P.Eng., Scott Weston, P.Geo., available on SEDAR.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Information
This news release contains "forward-looking information" and "forward-looking statements" (collectively, "forward-looking statements") within the meaning of the applicable Canadian securities legislation. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements and are based on expectations, estimates and projections as at the date of this news release. Any statement that involves discussions with respect to predictions, expectations, beliefs, plans, projections, objectives, assumptions, future events or performance (often but not always using phrases such as "expects", or "does not expect", "is expected", "anticipates" or "does not anticipate", "plans", “proposed”, "budget", "scheduled", "forecasts", "estimates", "believes" or "intends" or variations of such words and phrases or stating that certain actions, events or results "may" or "could", "would", "might" or "will" be taken to occur or be achieved) are not statements of historical fact and may be forward-looking statements. In this news release, forward-looking statements relate, among other things, the Company’s objectives, goals and exploration activities conducted and proposed to be conducted at the Company’s properties; future growth potential of the Company, including whether any proposed exploration programs at any of the Company’s properties will be successful; exploration results; and future exploration plans and costs and financing availability.
These forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions and estimates of management of the Company at the time such statements were made. Actual future results may differ materially as forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to materially differ from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors, among other things, include: the expected benefits to the Company relating to the exploration conducted and proposed to be conducted at the White Gold properties; the receipt of all applicable regulatory approvals for the Offering; failure to identify any additional mineral resources or significant mineralization; the preliminary nature of metallurgical test results; uncertainties relating to the availability and costs of financing needed in the future, including to fund any exploration programs on the Company’s properties; business integration risks; fluctuations in general macroeconomic conditions; fluctuations in securities markets; fluctuations in spot and forward prices of gold, silver, base metals or certain other commodities; fluctuations in currency markets (such as the Canadian dollar to United States dollar exchange rate); change in national and local government, legislation, taxation, controls, regulations and political or economic developments; risks and hazards associated with the business of mineral exploration, development and mining (including environmental hazards, industrial accidents, unusual or unexpected formations pressures, cave-ins and flooding); inability to obtain adequate insurance to cover risks and hazards; the presence of laws and regulations that may impose restrictions on mining and mineral exploration; employee relations; relationships with and claims by local communities and indigenous populations; availability of increasing costs associated with mining inputs and labour; the speculative nature of mineral exploration and development (including the risks of obtaining necessary licenses, permits and approvals from government authorities); the unlikelihood that properties that are explored are ultimately developed into producing mines; geological factors; actual results of current and future exploration; changes in project parameters as plans continue to be evaluated; soil sampling results being preliminary in nature and are not conclusive evidence of the likelihood of a mineral deposit; title to properties; ongoing uncertainties relating to the COVID-19 pandemic; and those factors described under the heading "Risks Factors" in the Company's annual information form dated July 29, 2020 available on SEDAR. Although the forward-looking statements contained in this news release are based upon what management of the Company believes, or believed at the time, to be reasonable assumptions, the Company cannot assure shareholders that actual results will be consistent with such forward-looking statements, as there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements and information. There can be no assurance that forward-looking information, or the material factors or assumptions used to develop such forward-looking information, will prove to be accurate. The Company does not undertake to release publicly any revisions for updating any voluntary forward-looking statements, except as required by applicable securities law.
Neither the TSXV nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this news release.
For Further Information, Please Contact:
Contact Information:
David D’Onofrio
Chief Executive Officer
White Gold Corp.
(647) 930-1880
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Photos accompanying this announcement are available at:
https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/daa2af43-0a52-46d1-a2c4-98e1dc9f1df9
https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/087996cf-fed6-4409-ae44-c7b4e814b28b
https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/cc68c8e2-4b18-44a1-93d7-db780dd967a2
https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/01857b16-d9d3-4dcd-a882-cfe4514956b3
https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/252e99dc-a886-4712-9d9a-bf0679a00a23

https://preview.redd.it/s0tr7e93fs4b1.png?width=150&format=png&auto=webp&s=64a240d4ede6abb2e2cb50f1fe62eb8234692b10
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2023.06.07 14:18 kratommd I got the complete method and supplement guide for restoring brain function in former addicts.

1.) Time abstaining from narcotics (12 months minimum)
This is the golden rule. From what I've gathered, from other users on this subreddit (myself included), Its generally a year abstaining from narcotics.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703868/
Investigations suggest that substantial improvements in neurobehavioral functions occur during the first 4 to 8 weeks of abstinence, followed by more modest mid-term (i.e., approximately 1 year) gains. Verbal skills typically improve most quickly, while other domains, although improved, may remain compromised for several months to years. https://www.paterehab.com/about-abi/#:~:text=You%20can%20expect%20the%20most,affect%20the%20degree%20of%20improvement.
You can expect the most rapid recovery from acquired brain injury in the first 18 months to two years following the injury; however, recovery can be a life-long process.
https://addiction.surgeongeneral.gov/sites/default/files/chapter-2-neurobiology.pdf
Supported scientific evidence shows that these changes in the brain persist long after substance use stops. It is not yet known how much these changes may be reversed or how long that process may take.
https://www.recoveryanswers.org/recovery-101/brain-in-recovery/
https://www.aspenridgerecoverycenters.com/how-long-for-dopamine-receptors-to-heal/#:~:text=So%20how%20long%20for%20dopamine,with%20proper%20treatment%20and%20rehabilitation.
So how long for dopamine receptors to heal? On average, it may take approximately 14-months to achieve normal levels in the brain with proper treatment and rehabilitation.
https://www.uchealth.com/en/media-room/articles/brain-injury-the-road-to-recovery
2.) Consistent 8 hour rest.
Sleep comes at 2-3 months into sobriety.
https://www.headway.org.uk/about-brain-injury/individuals/brain-injury-and-me/top-tips-for-a-good-nights-sleep/
A lack of sleep has many negative effects on a person’s physical and mental wellbeing, especially in the early stages of brain injury recovery. It may also exacerbate some of the symptoms of the brain injury, such as memory loss, lack of concentration, poor balance and mood changes.
https://news.ohsu.edu/2021/03/12/study-suggests-role-of-sleep-in-healing-traumatic-brain-injurieshttps://academic.oup.com/sleep/article/41/10/zsy147/5057802https://www.verywellhealth.com/sleep-traumatic-brain-injury-study-5117032https://nida.nih.gov/about-nida/noras-blog/2020/03/connections-between-sleep-substance-use-disorders
Most common mental disorders, from depression and anxiety to PTSD, are associated with disturbed sleep, and substance use disorders are no exception. The relationship may be complex and bidirectional: Substance use causes sleep problems; but insomnia and insufficient sleep may also be a factor raising the risk of drug use and addiction. Recognizing the importance of this once-overlooked factor, addiction researchers are paying increased attention to sleep and sleep disturbances, and even thinking about ways to target sleep disruption in substance use disorder treatment and prevention.
3.) Exercise
10-15k steps daily. I would recommend against strength training early in recovery, the professionals say to avoid strenuous workouts when recovering from a head injury. From what I've read, its generally flexibility/Aerobic/endurance exercises rather than strength/resistance/anabolic training. This is low weight, high rep workouts. Steady-paced/long duration workouts such as walking, jogging or swimming. The aim is for overall physical health/vasculaoxygen flow to your tissues. I personally do strength/endurance, aerobic/anabolic exercises now ( 18 months into sobriety).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276339/
Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs.
https://www.physio-pedia.com/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_for_Traumatic_Brain_Injuryhttps://amoryurgentcare.com/7-exercises-to-do-while-recovering-from-injuries/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4380661/
In recent years, aerobic exercise has gained attention for its neuroprotective effects and has been studied as an intervention in healthy older adults,8,9 and in those with cognitive impairments10–12 and other neurological disorders.13 Aerobic exercise is associated with various physiological adaptations that have positive effects on cortical function, including angiogenesis and neurogenesis.14 Evidence from animal studies suggests that cognitive deficits associated with TBI can be improved following exercise.15–19 In rodents with experimentally-induced TBI, better performance on the Morris water maze15–18 and step-down avoidance task19 was observed when exercised compared to being sedentary. This suggested that both learning and memory had improved with exercise. The expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor was also found to be increased in the hippocampus,15 which is an area associated with memory and learning.
https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/benefits-of-aerobic-exercise-following-traumatic-brain-injury
In a systematic review of controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trails with adults with neurologic disorders, McDowell and colleagues reported that aerobic exercise improved cognition, particularly attention and cognitive flexibility in adults with TBI, and improvements in motor learning for adults with stroke.7Exercise may promote cognitive recovery via a variety of mechanisms, such as increasing neural repair and neuroplasticity, modulating neurotransmitter systems (particularly dopamine), and decreasing neuroinflammation.
4.) Reduced stress.
When I read about recovering from an injury, they "the professionals" talk about how stress hinders the progression of the recovery.
Following a head injury, it is very important that you use healthy ways of dealing with stress in order to promote a good recovery. Psychological factors like stress and anxiety can increase all of your head injury symptoms and slow down your progress.
https://www.cognitivefxusa.com/blog/journaling-techniques-and-ideas-after-a-brain-injury#:~:text=Journaling%20offers%20you%20a%20way,yourself%20in%20a%20creative%20way.
Write in your journal
https://www.headway.org.uk/about-brain-injury/individuals/brain-injury-and-me/10-top-tips-for-coping-with-stress-after-brain-injury/
Take some time to consider what contributes to your stress. Identifying your triggers can help you anticipate issues and come up with solutions. You might find keeping a stress diary helpful, where you log your stress levels while performing your everyday activities.
-Im gonna work on this segment in my next update, I think its more important than the other segments. Stress plays a huge role in head injury recovery.
Avoid people and situations that are counter productive to your recovery(or rather recognize who means you help and who means you harm). In my experience over the past year of recovery, a blindsided stressor or a stress thrown at you that your recovering brain cannot handle, regresses your recovery 5 steps.
Let loved ones know what you're going through, so they take it easy on you... get away from abusive relationships, move in with your parents.
Avoid group settings jobs/deadline jobs, maybe look for a job where you are isolated.
Let people know when you need your alone time. You have to tip-toe back into the pool when in recovery.
5.) Omega 3s dha and epa
https://www.shinesheets.com/why-omega-3-can-be-beneficial-in-substance-abuse-recovery/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457439/
https://www.flintrehab.com/fish-oil-therapy-for-brain-injury/#:~:text=Reduces%20Inflammation&text=The%20EPA%20and%20DHA%20acids,therapy%20for%20brain%20injury%20patients.
Besides reducing inflammation, omega-3 also improves communication between brain cells. This allows the brain to work faster, which leads to a boost in cognitive function.
In fact, in one placebo-controlled study, patients who took 2000 mg of omega-3 fish oil per day performed significantly better on cognitive tests than those who did not take omega-3.
These patients especially showed improvements in executive function and memory, two areas that brain injury patients particularly struggle with.
https://indyneurofeedback.com/nutrition/omega-3-can-help-after-a-brain-injury/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5531869/ The DHA obtained through the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids is positively associated with cognitive and behavioral performance.[56] In addition DHA is vital for the grey matter structure of the human brain, as well as retinal stimulation and neurotransmission.[1]
6.) Brain derived neural factors
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal survival and growth, serves as a neurotransmitter modulator, and participates in neuronal plasticity, which is essential for learning and memory. It is widely expressed in the CNS, gut and other tissues.
https://www.optimallivingdynamics.com/blog/21-proven-ways-to-increase-your-brains-growth-hormone#:~:text=Drinking%20coffee%20is%20another%20great,increasing%20BDNF%20levels%20(90)).
Intermediate fasting has been proven to increase BDNF.
https://www.bswhealth.com/blog/intermittent-fasting-brain-health#:~:text=Fasting%20can%20increase%20BDNF%20levels,the%20body%2C%20including%20the%20brain.
Fasting can increase BDNF levels, which may lead to improved cognitive function, learning and memory. Reduced inflammation: Intermittent fasting can help decrease inflammation in the body, including the brain.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5697621/
Drinking coffee is another great way to increase BDNF levels. Research shows that caffeine protects brain cells and lowers the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. In one study, researchers found that caffeine significantly reduced age-related impairments in memory by increasing BDNF levels (90).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697050/
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/dneu.20774
During development, neural networks are established in a highly organized manner, which persists throughout life. Neurotrophins play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Among the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly conserved in gene structure and function during vertebrate evolution, and serves an important role during brain development and in synaptic
plasticity. BDNF participates in the formation of appropriate synaptic connections in the brain, and disruptions in this process contribute to disorders of cognitive function. In this review, we first briefly highlight current knowledge on the expression, regulation, and secretion of BDNF. Further, we provide an overview of the possible actions of BDNF in the development of neural circuits, with an emphasis on presynaptic actions of BDNF during the structural development of central neurons.
https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.150.8
A mouse study also found that mice fed a high-protein diet had higher BDNF levels, especially when combined with exercise[42].
One reason is that amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are necessary for the production of neurotransmitters--including BDNF[41].
7.) Vitamin B's
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/vitamin-b/
https://www.healthshots.com/brand-posts/heres-how-brain-health-can-be-improved-with-vitamin-b/#:~:text=Vitamin%20B6%2C%20B9%20(folate),and%20boost%20your%20brain%20power,and%20boost%20your%20brain%20power).
One such group of nutrients is B vitamins, which are considered essential. These are a collection of eight water-soluble vitamins that are critical for various metabolic processes. Vitamin B6, B9 (folate) and B12 are the major B group vitamins, which support the functioning and health of the brain as well as the nervous system.
These vitamins are medically proven to relieve stress and boost your brain power. In fact, they also fight depression, restrict brain ageing and help you live a longer life. The subtypes of vitamin B perform a range of vital roles in keeping your brain working efficiently.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27569259/
Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31105562/
https://www.hopeafterbraininjury.org/brain-injury-and-b12-deficiency/
Vitamin B12 is essential for our immunity, cognitive health, and entire nervous system.
I'm on the fence about vitamin B. It does give you a boost in energy, anything that alters your mood and energy has the potential to be bad in recovery. Albeit, the research shows it is the most key vitamin for nerve health.
8.) Sunlight
I think sunlight has the ability to perform miracles of science, in regards to health. They used to prescribe a glass house/glass room/sun rooms for certain mental illnesses back in the 1800s
https://www.northstartransitions.com/post/how-does-being-outdoors-help-addiction-recovery
https://www.mdpi.com/2673-5318/3/1/8
https://centralglassutah.com/light-life-windows-contribute-improved-mental-health/
https://foter.com/types-of-windows-and-their-impact-on-mental-health-and-depression
Many of us have already heard of light therapy. Light therapy is proven to treat various clinical disorders like Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and sleep disorders, which are often contributors to depression.
Evidence proves light or view from windows contribute to the prevention and treatment of mental health problems. Larger windows and glass walls permit more light, which impacts your brain chemistry and alters your emotional health.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728098/
We found that among participants with depression, low exposure to sunlight was associated with a significantly higher predicted probability of cognitive impairment. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for season. Among participants without depression, insolation did not have a significant effect on cognitive function.
Vitamin D,D3
I guess will help in the winter months. Nothing better than plain Ole sunlight.
https://www.webbernaturals.com/en-ca/learn/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-mental-health/
9.) Diet
This is a highly contentious debate. Some say a complex carbohydrate diet, others say a high protein diet. I'll give you a few different articles from both perspectives and let you make a decision. I personally do a ketogenetic diet now, which is a high protein/low carbohydrate routine. (I primarily used the ketosis diet to lose weight.) The argument is whether or not ketones or glucose is a better fuel source for neurogenesis/neurometabolism.
What you eat, highly influences your endogenous opiate activity.
https://www.karger.com/Article/Fulltext/338163
Opioids are important in reward processes leading to addictive behavior such as self-administration of opioids and other drugs of abuse including nicotine and alcohol. Opioids are also involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates eating behavior, affecting both homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. In this sense, opioids are particularly implicated in the modulation of highly palatable foods, and opioid antagonists attenuate both addictive drug taking and appetite for palatable food. Thus, craving for palatable food could be considered as a form of opioid-related addiction. There are three main families of opioid receptors (µ, ĸ, and δ) of which µ-receptors are most strongly implicated in reward. Administration of selective µ-agonists into the NAcc of rodents induces feeding even in satiated animals, while administration of µ-antagonists reduces food intake. Pharmacological studies also suggest a role for ĸ- and δ-opioid receptors. Preliminary data from transgenic knockout models suggest that mice lacking some of these receptors are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.951376/full The administration of a ketogenic diet in this semi-controlled setting to patients with treatment-refractory mental illness was feasible, well-tolerated, and associated with significant and substantial improvements in depression and psychosis symptoms
https://neurosciencenews.com/high-protein-diet-depression-22760/
The results showed higher protein intake was associated with a reduction in symptoms of depression during the follow-up period. Additionally, several deviations from the recommended nutritional intake were reported by the athletes.
https://www.isisn.org/MHS-1-1-2021/63-68-01(1)2021MHS21-112.pdf2021MHS21-112.pdf)
Carbohydrates when taken in adequate amount and in right balance (complex and simple carbohydrates) in diet can sustain good mental health and improve symptoms of any psychological issues especially depression, anxiety, mood disturbances and stress. On the other hand, taking a prominent quantity of simple sugars can cause the onset or exacerbation of stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Following a western diet containing hefty amounts of processed carbohydrates has also been associated with poor mental health. However, current findings are still ambiguous to develop a certain well defined relationship between carbohydrates and their effect on mental wellbeing and more research is needed in this respect.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2023.1147269/full
preclinical studies performed in rats and mice demonstrate that high fats and/or sugars diets have a negative effect on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). In contrast, diets enriched with bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols, as well as intermittent fasting or caloric restriction, can induce AHN.
https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.150.8
Results showed that high protein diets induced BDNF expression and that combining this diet with voluntary exercise had an additive effect on BDNF expression. In contrast, a high fat diet attenuated the positive effects of exercise on BDNF expression.
I've noticed, how much I craved sugars after ingesting opiates... I think avoiding sugars is important in recovering from any and all addictions.
10.) Cognitive behavioral therapy
Healthy thoughts = Healthy mind.
CBT is trying to control your train of thought, or rather recognizing and changing a negative thought pattern.
Negative thoughts affect emotions and emotions affect your behavior and your negative behavior reinforces your negative thoughts.
Thoughts - emotions --- behavior --thoughts---emotions---behavior
https://neuliferehab.com/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-after-traumatic-brain-injury/
CBT focuses on getting patients to understand why they behave in the way they do. At the root, CBT helps patients uncover distorted or unhealthy thinking patterns. Patients learn to understand:
What we believe creates feelings.
Those feelings lead us to behave in a certain way.
The way we behave then reinforces how we feel.
https://www.brainline.org/treatment-hub/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help you to think differently about your experiences and your relationships, with the goal of making some positive changes in your life. CBT is based on the idea that how we think, how we feel, and how we act are all closely related.
CBT can help you identify and change negative or unhealthy types of thinking. For example, if you are dealing with PTSD, you might have overly negative thoughts about yourself based on guilt from the trauma that occurred. And triggers that remind you of your trauma might cause painful emotions, leading you to avoid triggering situations. Once you become aware that these thoughts are flawed -- that you did the best you could when the trauma occurred -- you can work with a therapist to change your thinking so that you can respond to challenging life situations in a healthier way.
CBT can also be used to help people who have had a traumatic brain injury. Many people with TBI struggle with depression or anxiety, often because of fear of further injury or further loss of functioning. In this situation, someone with a brain injury might be anxious about certain situations that present the possibility of another injury occurring. CBT would help identify this fear and teach healthier ways of thinking. People with brain injuries also sometimes have anger management problems or act more impulsively. This is due to changes in how your brain works after being injured. In these cases, CBT can teach someone ways to recognize when this is becoming a problem and strategies for how to solve it.
I also think, keeping higher oriented goals, or working on a project that requires constant input, gives you a feeling of progression in recovery(it also consumes your thoughts and gives you a directive to return to when feeling hopeless), as you feel so hopeless and nothing you do really matters in recovery. (a diary, financial goal, weight loss goal. any project that requires your attention and shows a progression.)
I think aswell, engaging in intellectual conversation/connections, stimulates neurogenesis in the brain. Any contact that changes your understanding of the universe(Its how we grow as people).
11.) Repetitive action
https://www.flintrehab.com/can-tbi-patients-fully-recove#:~:text=Therefore%2C%20a%20full%20and%20functional,can%20stall%20and%20even%20regress.
Research shows, repetitive actions promote neuroplasticity. Such as walking everyday, or writing down your thoughts in an app on your phone habitually, showing up to 9-5 day job on time everyday, etc. Neuroplasticity isnt brain cell growth, its change in your brain rather. The research on brain injuries Ive conducted, shows brain cell death usually doesn't regenerate, however your brain will rewire overtime to regain functionability.
So, can the brain heal itself from brain damage? Yes, absolutely – with the help of neuroplasticity!
"Neuroplasticity allows the brain to create new pathways and strengthen existing ones. This enables healthy parts of the brain to compensate for damaged areas. You can imagine it like this:
When a street or freeway entrance has been blocked along your daily commute, the GPS may suggest an alternative route. This alternative route may be unfamiliar and take longer to navigate, but it will still lead you to your destination. The same concept can be applied to neuroplasticity.
Use it or Lose it: The Importance of Repetition Now, you may be wondering how to activate neuroplasticity after brain injury.
Neuroplasticity is best activated through repetition, or massed practice. The more you practice a certain task, the stronger your neural connections become.
As previously mentioned, the brain adapts to experiences. Therefore, when the brain encounters a certain experience or action repeatedly, that pathway is reinforced and strengthened.
For instance, to improve your ability to walk, you should practice walking in safe environments. Additionally, there are leg exercises that you can do to strengthen your body and assist with mobility.
It’s important to practice impaired skills after a brain injury to prevent loss of function altogether. For instance, if your dominant hand was affected, you may be tempted to use your non-dominant hand instead, especially during mealtimes."
12.) Constant work
One of the things ive learned, is recovering from a head injury is not linear. You'll regress and grow in your recovery. It requires constant attention and effort, as I possibly had several TBIs while also addicted to narcotics, maybe leaving me partially brain damaged.
Around month 10-11 of my sobriety, I went back and relearned all of the basic disciplines. Grammar, social studies, algebra, etc. Everyday, I attempted to spell a paragraph of unfamiliar, difficult to spell words or recite the preamble of the constitution, etc.
13.) Collagen peptides, magnesium and trace vitamins(multis),minerals
Collagen
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. Its fiber-like structure is used to make connective tissue. Like the name implies, this type of tissue connects other tissues and is a major component of bone, skin, muscles, tendons, and cartilage.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5950659/
Furthermore, hydrogels can be used as bulk scaffolds to fill in lesions in the CNS that are formed due to tissue damage after traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury in order to provide mechanical support and a favorable microenvironment for axon sprouting and cell infiltration (Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008; Orive et al., 2009). I
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0142961211013949
These results suggest that the utilization of CG scaffolds can be considered as a potential clinical strategy for tissue regeneration and functional recovery after brain injury.
Magnesium
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6024559/
Restoring the balance of magnesium within patients with depression has been proposed to have anti-depressive effects by protecting brain structures associated with depression by reducing the cascade of cell death caused by excitotoxicity [95,96,97]. Magnesium may also impact depressive symptoms by interacting with the HPA system, as discussed with anxiety disorders [97,98]. As seen in several other neurological disorders, lower magnesium levels have been associated with depression. One recent study reported a negative correlation between dietary intake of magnesium and depression [93].
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5637834/
Magnesium should also be considered as an adjunct for depression, attention deficit disorder, prevention
Magnesium sulfate has been successfully used in agitated depression as far back as 1921 [71]. In fact, rapid recovery of depression has been reported with the use of Mg glycinate or Mg taurinate [72]. There is an inverse correlation in adults between Mg intake and psychiatric states such as anxiety and depression [73]. Magnesium is required as a coenzyme to convert tryptophan to serotonin, a neurotransmitter recognized as a major determinant of mental health and mood. A systematic review suggests that Mg supplementation may prevent depression and may be useful as adjuvant therapy
https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.00004.2014
14.) Neuroplasticity/Neurogenesis
Here are various articles on the matter. Its as simple as believing in Neurogenesis, the idea the brain can regrow/heal after an injury/change, gives hope to the hopeless in substance recovery.
https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/brain-plasticity-in-drug-addiction-burden-and-benefit-2020062620479
https://www.altamirarecovery.com/blog/the-brain-that-heals-itself-neuroplasticity-and-promise-for-addiction-treatment/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6758482/
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01657/full
https://health.mil/News/Articles/2021/10/14/Brain-Resilience#:~:text=Aerobic%20exercise%20and%20regularly%20moving,first%20needs%20time%20to%20rest.
In summary
Just to clarify, a traumatic brain injury is anything that damages/disrupts the brains natural functioning.
TBI is a broad term(its usually understood as a brain injury acquired through external forces), I see the terminology "non-traumatic acquired brain injury", as the medical terminology for drug induced brain damage (stroke, hypoxia, neurotoxins, etc), they both are treated similarly. PM if you need help or have suggestions/pointers. Dont expect miracles, the damage is already done, some more than others. The goal is to try to regain as much functionality as possible...This list pertains to a polydrug addiction.(it's harder to find research studies on non-traumatic acquired brain injuries than traumatic brain injuries, it appears they are treated very similarly).
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2023.06.06 12:37 boutell New US CHAdeMO chargers in May 2023

Here are all of the new US CHAdeMO (Leaf fast-charging) stations that rolled out in May 2023, according to the U.S. Department of Energy.
There were 124 "new" CHAdeMOs added in May. To put it in perspective, there were 112 CHAdeMO chargers added in April. I think the pace of CHAdeMO rollout has stabilized, while the pace of CCS rollout is still increasing. This makes sense given that only Nissan still makes a CHAdeMO car.
Some of these chargepoints will be "refreshes," e.g. the provider replaced them with faster chargers etc. Some may be incorrect. This report is only as good as the Alternative Fuels Data Center data.
We all know that CHAdeMO is a legacy format and will eventually go away, but clearly Nissan and their partners are continuing to support it for the time being. This shouldn't be surprising. After all, you can still buy a new Leaf.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or reading these monthly reports is just frustrating in your state, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications only when new stations actually open. You can sign up at evpov.com. I built it to help EV owners like myself (especially my fellow Leaf owners). You can pick other plug types as well.
To streamline this post, multi-chargepoint locations are listed with the number of chargepoints first, so that's why the post is shorter than in previous months.
➡ CA (1) Fairfield Inn & Suites 8700 Spectrum Pkwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (1) MOSSY CDJR DC 1 1875 Auto Park Ave Chula Vista, CA 91911 (3) DC CORRIDOR CHEVRON C DC 2 25032 W Dorris Ave Coalinga, CA 93210 (1) South Coast Collection (SoCo) 3303 Hyland Ave Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (1) SCPPA SCPPA CPE200T 1160 Nicole Ct Glendora, CA 91740 (1) Mojave Air & Spaceport (Building 1) 16922 Airport Blvd Mojave, CA 93501 (1) Albertsons 1345 (Morro Bay, CA) 730 Quintana Road Morro City, CA 93442 (1) CircleK - Palm Desert, CA 78005 Country Club Dr Palm Desert, CA 92211 (1) Hilton Garden Inn 20 Advantage Ct Sacramento, CA 95834 (1) BoA Hillcrest CA0-120 (San Diego, CA) 737 UNIVERSITY AVE San Diego, CA 92103 (1) WinCo Foods - Vacaville #60 855 Davis St Vacaville, CA 95687 ➡ CO (1) CITY OF ASPEN RIO GRANDE L3 427 Rio Grande Pl Aspen, CO 81611 (4) CSG EV BOULDER PL4 1500 Pearl St Boulder, CO 80302 (1) CircleK - Colorado City, CA 8950 S Interstate 25 Colorado City, CO 81004 (2) GPM INVESTMENTS 4590 DC1 8105 N Academy Blvd Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (2) KUM & GO CRAIG PL2 700 East Victory Way Craig, CO 81625 (1) DINO WELCOME DINOSAUR PL1 101 Stegosaurus Freeway Dinosaur, CO 81610 (2) PIKES PK CHARGE BA.CA.MI LLC #2 11027 US-24 Divide, CO 80814 (3) ANNEX SITE GEORGETOWN PL2 1120 Argentine Street Georgetown, CO 80444 (4) KUM & GO RIFLE PL4 705 Taugenbaugh Boulevard Rifle, CO 81650 (2) KUM & GO SB SPRINGS PL2 80 Anglers Drive Steamboat Springs, CO 80487 ➡ FL (1) JNKNS JACKSONVI DC FAST 2 11107 Atlantic Blvd Jacksonville, FL 32225 (1) Starbucks 9200 FL-228 Macclenny, FL 32063 (1) Ocean Cadillac 17800 Ipco Road Miami, FL 33162 (1) Sun Plaza 6339 W Colonial Dr Orlando, FL 32818 (1) BHY CHARGER 1 9915 E Adamo Dr Tampa, FL 33619 (1) Chase Bank - 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd Winter Springs, FL 32708 ➡ GA (1) GEORGIA POWER EPICENTER DC1 135 riverside parkway SW Austell, GA 30168 (1) JACKSON EMC GAINESVILLE 1000 Dawsonville Highway Gainesville, GA 30501 ➡ IN (1) AVON HYUNDAI SALES 8775 E 36 Avon, IN 46123 (1) HOC CHARGERS CHARGER #1 4200 E 96th St Indianapolis, IN 46240 ➡ KS (1) HATCHETT FRONT_WEST 11200 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 (1) HATCHETT BACK EAST 11330 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 ➡ KY (1) JEFF WYLER FH EXPRESS 250 949 Burlington Pike Florence, KY 41042 ➡ MA (6) MASSPORT TNC 4 226 Porter St Boston, MA 02128 (2) MASSPORT TAXI 4 56 Harborside Dr Boston, MA 02128 ➡ MD (2) POTOMAC EDISON ROCKY GAP DC1 16701 Lakeview Rd NE Flintstone, MD 21530 ➡ ME (1) DARLINGS HYUNDA SALES CHARGER 2 439 Western Ave Augusta, ME 04330 (2) IRVINGOIL ME-FFLD-L3-0001 206 Center Rd Fairfield, ME 04937 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 1 1930 Lisbon Street Lewiston, ME 04240 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 2 1938 Lisbon St Lewiston, ME 04240 ➡ MI (1) Belle Isle DC Fast Charge 176 Lakeside Dr Detroit, MI 48207 (1) Evergetic Charging Spa 330 South Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard Lansing, MI 48915 ➡ MN (1) WINNER GAS BROOKDALE DR 1500 Brookdale Dr Minneapolis, MN 55444 ➡ NC (1) CAPE HATTERAS AVON PIER DCFC2 41001 North Carolina Hwy 12 Avon, NC 27915 (1) AEMC- AEMC HQ FAST 125 Cooperative Way Hertford, NC 27944 (1) Chestnut Arbor 2925 Weddington Matthews Rd Matthews, NC 28105 ➡ NE (1) ERNST CHARGER 1 EAC CHARGER 615 23rd St E Columbus, NE 68601 ➡ NJ (1) ShopRite Carteret - Wakefern #511 801 Roosevelt Ave Carteret, NJ 07008 (2) FREEHOLDHYUNDAI VERIZON 1 4075 9 Freehold Township, NJ 07728 (2) CLASS 3 CHARGER HYUNDAI-2 250 Rte 4 Paramus, NJ 07652 (1) CIRCLEAUTOGROUP CH- CPE250 1 641 Shrewsbury Ave Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI CPE-250-02 3905 US 1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI RT1-01 3913 US-1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 ➡ NY (1) AAA WESTCENTRAL DC FAST CHARGER 100 International Dr Amherst, NY 14221 (2) KEELER STATION 6 1111 Troy Schenectady Rd Latham, NY 12110 (1) LEXUSMIDDLETOWN STATION 1 3496 US-6 Middletown, NY 10940 (3) BOB JOHNSON BOB JOHNSON KIA 3817 W Henrietta Rd Rochester, NY 14623 ➡ OH (2) CRESTMONT DRIVECRESTMONT2 2961 Center Rd Brunswick, OH 44212 (1) Hampton Inn - Canton 5256 Broadmoor Cir NW Canton, OH 44709 (1) JEFF WYLER EXPRESS 250 Loop @ Far Hills Centerville, OH 45459 (1) DONWOODAUTO DW CHEVY 2 12916 OH-664 Logan, OH 43138 (1) JEFF WYLER CORP 4- DC FAST 401 Milford Pkwy Milford, OH 45150 (1) Friendship Kitchen 70 3800 E. State Rd. Port Clinton, OH 43452 (1) Friendship Kitchen 83 4024 Hayes Ave. Sandusky, OH 44870 ➡ OK (1) EDMOND HYUNDAI EDMOND 4 14137 N Broadway Ext Edmond, OK 73013 ➡ OR (1) PGE IBEW 48 15937 NE Airport Way Portland, OR 97230 ➡ PA (1) DOYLESTOWN 024B1000008033 4465 W Swamp Rd Doylestown, PA 18902 (2) LIBERTY CHARWASH PL 2 2595 Maryland Road Willow Grove, PA 19090 ➡ PR (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA CPE 250 PKNG 2 106 Calle Acuarela Guaynabo, PR 00969 (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA FTZ120KW-2 1086 Ave. Muñoz Rivera San Juan, PR 00919 ➡ SC (1) Travelers Rest Municipal Complex 125 Trailblazer Dr Travelers Rest, SC 29690 ➡ TN (4) I24 EXIT11 STATION 1 (LL) 701 Sango Road Clarksville, TN 37043 (2) DISTRICT 2 STATION 1 (L) 28 S Park Ave Hohenwald, TN 38462 (2) LAWRENCEBURG STATION 2 (R) 2347 Hwy 43 N Leoma, TN 38468 (1) MB OF MEMPHIS STATION 1 5401 Poplar Ave Memphis, TN 38119 ➡ TX (1) Plaza de Oro 4450 W Jefferson Blvd Dallas, TX 75211 ➡ UT (2) VOLVO CAR USA SANDY DC 2 56 W 9000 S Sandy, UT 84070 ➡ VA (2) KOONS HYUNDAI STATION 1 1880 Opitz Blvd Woodbridge, VA 22191 ➡ WA (2) HANSON MOTORS HM3 QUICKCHARGE 2300 Carriage Loop SW Olympia, WA 98502 (1) Walmart 2539 - Spokane Valley, WA 15727 E Broadway Ave Spokane Valley, WA 99037 (1) 7054 -Vancouver, WA 98664 (10314 SE Mill Plain Road) 13014 SE Mill Plain Rd Vancouver, WA 98684 ➡ WI (1) BERG HYUNDAI VLI-L3-PDI-4 2900 N Victory Ln Appleton, WI 54913 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet of Coloma 1978 Charles Way Coloma, WI 54930 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet GMC of Marshfield 2701 S. Maple Ave Marshfield, WI 54449 
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2023.06.06 12:32 boutell New US CCS chargers report for May 2023

Here are all of the new US CCS (Level 3 fast-charging) stations that rolled out in May 2023, according to the Department of Energy. These chargers are suitable for most new EVs on the market, except for:
  1. Tesla drivers who haven't bought the official CCS adapter yet. Certain older Teslas need additional work done to accept the adapter.
  2. Leaf owners like me, and some owners of older cars that also use CHAdeMO. If you drive a Leaf, or an older CHAdeMO car, see my matching post in leaf.
Some of these chargepoints will be "refreshes," e.g. the provider replaced them with faster chargers etc. Some may be incorrect. This report is only as good as the Alternative Fuels Data Center data.
There were 222 CCS charge points added or refreshed in May 2023, which is up from 171 in April. For comparison, there were only 74 new CCS charge points in May 2022. Things are speeding up.
"What about CCS charging at Tesla superchargers?" Tesla is in the process of rolling out their "magic dock" for non-Tesla cars, but so far in very few locations. If they start doing this at scale and reporting it to the Alternative Fuels Data Center then it will be reflected here.
"What about Ford vehicles with NACS (Tesla) plugs?" They are not on sale yet. Current-generation Ford vehicles have CCS plugs. The next generation will have NACS (Tesla) plugs, but will also support CCS via an adapter.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or just prefer not to check this list monthly when new openings are rare in your area, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications as soon as they open. You can sign up at evpov.com. Or not! I don't really have a business plan here, I built it to help EV owners like myself.
To streamline this post, multi-chargepoint locations are listed with the number of chargepoints first, so that's why the post is shorter than in previous months.
➡ AR (1) Franklin's Charging Little Rock 724 Woodrow St Little Rock, AR 72205 ➡ AZ (6) 942 E Parma Street (US-CMK-NVL-2A) 942 E Parma Street Gila Bend, AZ 85337 (1) Kroger Frys 62 (Mesa, AZ) 554 W Baseline Rd Mesa, AZ 85210 ➡ CA (1) Fairfield Inn & Suites 8700 Spectrum Pkwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (1) MOSSY CDJR DC 1 1875 Auto Park Ave Chula Vista, CA 91911 (3) DC CORRIDOR CHEVRON C DC 2 25032 W Dorris Ave Coalinga, CA 93210 (1) South Coast Collection (SoCo) 3303 Hyland Ave Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (1) SCPPA SCPPA CPE200T 1160 Nicole Ct Glendora, CA 91740 (1) Chase Bank - 925 N Hacienda Blvd 925 N Hacienda Blvd La Puente, CA 91744 (1) WOODLANDHILLS ABB 24KW 01 22006 Erwin Street Los Angeles, CA 91367 (1) 7071 - Merced, CA (2020 Childs Ave) 2020 Childs Ave Merced, CA 95341 (1) Mojave Air & Spaceport (Building 1) 16922 Airport Blvd Mojave, CA 93501 (1) BMW MONROVIA OFF NETWORK 01 1425 Mountain Ave Monrovia, CA 91016 (1) Albertsons 1345 (Morro Bay, CA) 730 Quintana Road Morro City, CA 93442 (1) 3333 Fruitvale Ave 3333 Fruitvale Ave Oakland, CA 94602 (1) 7126 - Oakley, CA (5540 Bridgehead Road) 5540 Bridgehead Road Oakley, CA 94561 (1) CircleK - Palm Desert, CA 78005 Country Club Dr Palm Desert, CA 92211 (1) Hilton Garden Inn 20 Advantage Ct Sacramento, CA 95834 (1) BoA Hillcrest CA0-120 (San Diego, CA) 737 UNIVERSITY AVE San Diego, CA 92103 (1) WinCo Foods - Vacaville #60 855 Davis St Vacaville, CA 95687 ➡ CO (1) CITY OF ASPEN RIO GRANDE L3 427 Rio Grande Pl Aspen, CO 81611 (4) CSG EV BOULDER PL4 1500 Pearl St Boulder, CO 80302 (5) 1 Flatiron Crossing (US-ME8-73R-2B) 1 Flatiron Crossing Broomfield, CO 80021 (1) CircleK - Colorado City, CA 8950 S Interstate 25 Colorado City, CO 81004 (2) GPM INVESTMENTS 4590 DC1 8105 N Academy Blvd Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (2) KUM & GO CRAIG PL2 700 East Victory Way Craig, CO 81625 (1) DINO WELCOME DINOSAUR PL1 101 Stegosaurus Freeway Dinosaur, CO 81610 (2) PIKES PK CHARGE BA.CA.MI LLC #2 11027 US-24 Divide, CO 80814 (4) ANNEX SITE GEORGETOWN PL4 1120 Argentine Street Georgetown, CO 80444 (4) KUM & GO RIFLE PL4 705 Taugenbaugh Boulevard Rifle, CO 81650 (2) KUM & GO SB SPRINGS PL2 80 Anglers Drive Steamboat Springs, CO 80487 ➡ CT (1) BOA East Hartford CT2-120 (Hartford, CT) 805 E Main Street East Hartford, CT 06108 (1) HARTFORD BMW ABB OUTSIDE 1 Weston Park Rd Hartford, CT 06120 ➡ DE (1) First State Chevrolet 22694 DUPONT BLVD GEORGETOWN, DE 19947 ➡ FL (1) JNKNS JACKSONVI DC FAST 2 11107 Atlantic Blvd Jacksonville, FL 32225 (1) Simon Tampa Premium Outlets (Lutz, FL) 2300 Grand Cypress Dr Lutz, FL 33559 (1) Starbucks 9200 FL-228 Macclenny, FL 32063 (1) Ocean Cadillac 17800 Ipco Road Miami, FL 33162 (1) Sun Plaza 6339 W Colonial Dr Orlando, FL 32818 (1) Simon Orlando Vineland (Orlando, FL) 8200 Vineland Ave Orlando, FL 32821 (1) Simon Tyrone Square (St Petersburg, FL) 6901 22nd Ave N Peterburg, FL 33710 (1) BHY CHARGER 1 9915 E Adamo Dr Tampa, FL 33619 (1) Chase Bank - 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd Winter Springs, FL 32708 ➡ GA (1) GEORGIA POWER EPICENTER DC1 135 riverside parkway SW Austell, GA 30168 (1) JACKSON EMC GAINESVILLE 1000 Dawsonville Highway Gainesville, GA 30501 ➡ IL (1) Castle Chevrolet North 175 N Arlington Heights Rd Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 (1) Sunrise Chevrolet 414 E N Ave Glendale Heights, IL 60139 ➡ IN (1) AVON HYUNDAI SALES 8775 E 36 Avon, IN 46123 (1) SHRM CHRG MERCEDESBENZFW 7227 W Jefferson Blvd Fort Wayne, IN 46804 (1) HOC CHARGERS CHARGER #1 4200 E 96th St Indianapolis, IN 46240 (1) Sullivan Cadillac 4040 SW College Rd Ocala, IN 34474 ➡ KS (1) HATCHETT FRONT_WEST 11200 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 (1) HATCHETT BACK EAST 11330 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 ➡ KY (1) JEFF WYLER FH EXPRESS 250 949 Burlington Pike Florence, KY 41042 ➡ LA (1) All Star Automotive 12730 Airline Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70817 (1) Target T1469 (Monroe, LA) 4103 Pecanland Mall Dr Monroe, LA 71203 ➡ MA (6) MASSPORT TNC 4 226 Porter St Boston, MA 02128 (2) MASSPORT TAXI 4 56 Harborside Dr Boston, MA 02128 (1) Littleton Electric Light & Water Department 39 Ayer Road Littleton, MA 01460 ➡ MD (2) POTOMAC EDISON ROCKY GAP DC1 16701 Lakeview Rd NE Flintstone, MD 21530 ➡ ME (1) DARLINGS HYUNDA SALES CHARGER 2 439 Western Ave Augusta, ME 04330 (2) IRVINGOIL ME-FFLD-L3-0001 206 Center Rd Fairfield, ME 04937 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 1 1930 Lisbon Street Lewiston, ME 04240 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 2 1938 Lisbon St Lewiston, ME 04240 ➡ MI (1) Belle Isle DC Fast Charge 176 Lakeside Dr Detroit, MI 48207 (1) Meijer 254 (Hudsonville, MI) 4075 32nd Ave Hudsonville, MI 49426 (1) Evergetic Charging Spa 330 South Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard Lansing, MI 48915 (1) Genesis Cadillac 19900 E Nine Mile Road St Clair Shores, MI 48080 (1) MBSTL ENTRANCE ABB 1048 Hampton Avenue St. Louis, MI 63139 (1) Range USA Ypsilanti 660 James L Hart Pkwy Ypsilanti, MI 48197 ➡ MN (1) WINNER GAS BROOKDALE DR 1500 Brookdale Dr Minneapolis, MN 55444 ➡ MO (1) GM - Allen Christian Buick GMC Inc 724 W Business US Highway 60, Dexter, MO 63841 (1) Store 290 Joplin - 2101 S. Prigmore &I44 2101 S Prigmore Joplin, MO 64804 ➡ MS (1) 1685 High St 1685 High St Jackson, MS 39202 ➡ NC (1) CAPE HATTERAS AVON PIER DCFC2 41001 North Carolina Hwy 12 Avon, NC 27915 (1) Westcott Buick GMC 2410 S CHURCH ST BURLINGTON, NC 27215 (1) 9960 Poplar Tent Rd 9960 Poplar Tent Rd Concord, NC 28027 (1) AEMC- AEMC HQ FAST 125 Cooperative Way Hertford, NC 27944 (1) Capital Hyundai of Jacksonville 2325 N Marine Blvd Jacksonville, NC 28546 (1) Chestnut Arbor 2925 Weddington Matthews Rd Matthews, NC 28105 ➡ NE (1) ERNST CHARGER 1 EAC CHARGER 615 23rd St E Columbus, NE 68601 ➡ NH (1) Berlin City Chevrolet 545 MAIN STREET GORHAM, NH 03581 (2) Tanger Tilton Under Armour 06-07 120 Laconia Road Tilton, NH 03256 ➡ NJ (1) ShopRite Carteret - Wakefern #511 801 Roosevelt Ave Carteret, NJ 07008 (1) Lester Glenn Freehold 3712 Rte 9 Freehold, NJ 07728 (2) FREEHOLDHYUNDAI VERIZON 1 4075 9 Freehold Township, NJ 07728 (2) CLASS 3 CHARGER HYUNDAI-2 250 Rte 4 Paramus, NJ 07652 (1) CIRCLEAUTOGROUP CH- CPE250 1 641 Shrewsbury Ave Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI CPE-250-02 3905 US 1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI RT1-01 3913 US-1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) Lester Glenn Buick-GMC 230 RTE 37 E TOMS RIVER, NJ 08753 (1) Lester Glenn Chevrolet 398 Rt 37 Toms River, NJ 08753 ➡ NY (1) AAA WESTCENTRAL DC FAST CHARGER 100 International Dr Amherst, NY 14221 (2) KEELER STATION 6 1111 Troy Schenectady Rd Latham, NY 12110 (1) LEXUSMIDDLETOWN STATION 1 3496 US-6 Middletown, NY 10940 (1) Lerner NYC Station Plaza (Port Jefferson Station, NY) 5145 Nesconset Highway Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 (3) BOB JOHNSON BOB JOHNSON KIA 3817 W Henrietta Rd Rochester, NY 14623 (1) Burr Truck Level 3 DC Fast Charge 2901 Vestal Rd Vestal, NY 13850 ➡ OH (1) Serra Chevrolet 3281 S Arlington Rd Akron, OH 44312 (1) Tim Lally Chevrolet 24999 Miles Rd Bedford Heights, OH 44128 (2) CRESTMONT DRIVECRESTMONT2 2961 Center Rd Brunswick, OH 44212 (1) Lambert Buick GMC 2409 FRONT ST CUYAHOGA FALLS, OH 44221 (1) Hampton Inn - Canton 5256 Broadmoor Cir NW Canton, OH 44709 (1) JEFF WYLER EXPRESS 250 Loop @ Far Hills Centerville, OH 45459 (1) DONWOODAUTO DW CHEVY 2 12916 OH-664 Logan, OH 43138 (2) WAG ABB STATION 1 8457 N Springboro Pike Miamisburg, OH 45342 (1) JEFF WYLER CORP 4- DC FAST 401 Milford Pkwy Milford, OH 45150 (1) Friendship Kitchen 70 3800 E. State Rd. Port Clinton, OH 43452 (1) Friendship Kitchen 83 4024 Hayes Ave. Sandusky, OH 44870 (1) Serpentini Chevrolet of Strongsville 15303 Royalton Rd Strongsville, OH 44136 (1) Don's Automotive Group 720 N SHOOP AVE WAUSEON, OH 43567 (1) Bush Auto Place 1850 Rombach Avenue Wilmington, OH 45177 ➡ OK (1) EDMOND HYUNDAI EDMOND 4 14137 N Broadway Ext Edmond, OK 73013 ➡ OR (6) 12000 SE 82nd Ave (US-H8H-UM5-2A) 12000 SE 82nd Ave Happy Valley, OR 97086 (1) PGE IBEW 48 15937 NE Airport Way Portland, OR 97230 ➡ PA (1) DOYLESTOWN 024B1000008033 4465 W Swamp Rd Doylestown, PA 18902 (2) LIBERTY CHARWASH PL 2 2595 Maryland Road Willow Grove, PA 19090 (1) Bergeys Inc 518 RTE 309 colmar, PA 18915 ➡ PR (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA CPE 250 PKNG 2 106 Calle Acuarela Guaynabo, PR 00969 (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA FTZ120KW-2 1086 Ave. Muñoz Rivera San Juan, PR 00919 ➡ RI (1) Paul Masse Chevrolet 1111 Taunton Ave East Providence, RI 02914 ➡ SC (1) Travelers Rest Municipal Complex 125 Trailblazer Dr Travelers Rest, SC 29690 ➡ TN (4) I24 EXIT11 STATION 1 (LL) 701 Sango Road Clarksville, TN 37043 (2) DISTRICT 2 STATION 1 (L) 28 S Park Ave Hohenwald, TN 38462 (2) LAWRENCEBURG STATION 2 (R) 2347 Hwy 43 N Leoma, TN 38468 (1) MB OF MEMPHIS STATION 1 5401 Poplar Ave Memphis, TN 38119 ➡ TX (1) Friendly Chevrolet 2754 North Stemmons Way Dallas, TX 75207 (1) Plaza de Oro 4450 W Jefferson Blvd Dallas, TX 75211 (1) Shell 3302 S Eastman Rd Longview, TX 75602 (1) 3220 Gulf Fwy 3220 Gulf Fwy Texas City, TX 77591 ➡ UT (2) VOLVO CAR USA SANDY DC 2 56 W 9000 S Sandy, UT 84070 ➡ VA (1) BLACKWELL D1 4874 Riverside Dr Danville, VA 24541 (1) Fleet Management Site (For Testing Purpose Only) 512 Herndon Pkwy Herndon, VA 20170 (6) 2577 Jeb Stuart Highway (US-TDM-SCC-1C) 2577 Jeb Stuart Highway Meadows of Dan, VA 24120 (5) 2203 Franklin Road Southwest (US-TUJ-L2K-2C) 2203 Franklin Road Southwest Roanoke, VA 24014 (6) 437 Tiffany Drive (US-CHT-WF7-2C) 437 Tiffany Drive Waynesboro, VA 22980 (2) KOONS HYUNDAI STATION 1 1880 Opitz Blvd Woodbridge, VA 22191 ➡ VT (1) Cody Chevrolet 364 RIVER ST MONTPELIER, VT 05602 ➡ WA (1) 7112 - Bellevue WA (12903 NE 20th Street) 12903 NE 20th Bellevue, WA 98005 (1) 7060 - Burlington, WA (1790 South Burlington Blvd) 1790 South Burlington Blvd Burlington, WA 98233 (1) 5507 - Everett, WA (901 Casino Road) 901 Casino Road Everett, WA 98204 (1) 7025 - Everett, WA (13131 Bothell Everett Hwy) 13131 Bothell Everett Hwy Everett, WA 98208 (1) 4397 - Kelso, WA (1700 Allen Street) 1700 Allen Street Kelso, WA 98626 (1) 7063 - Olympia, WA (1725 Evergreen Park Drive SW) 1725 Evergreen Park Drive SW Olympia, WA 98502 (2) HANSON MOTORS HM3 QUICKCHARGE 2300 Carriage Loop SW Olympia, WA 98502 (1) 7096 - Sequim, WA (51 Carlsborg Road) 51 Carlsborg Road Sequim, WA 98382 (1) Walmart 2539 - Spokane Valley, WA 15727 E Broadway Ave Spokane Valley, WA 99037 (1) 7054 -Vancouver, WA 98664 (10314 SE Mill Plain Road) 13014 SE Mill Plain Rd Vancouver, WA 98684 (1) 7059 - Woodinville, WA (13023 NE 175th St) 13023 NE 175th St Woodinville, WA 98072 ➡ WI (1) BERG HYUNDAI VLI-L3-PDI-4 2900 N Victory Ln Appleton, WI 54913 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet of Coloma 1978 Charles Way Coloma, WI 54930 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet GMC of Marshfield 2701 S. Maple Ave Marshfield, WI 54449 
submitted by boutell to electricvehicles [link] [comments]


2023.06.06 01:51 JeliPuff The Puzzling Disappearance of Karen Louise Wilson

This case has already been covered, but I felt the write-up was a bit bareboned and could’ve gone further in depth. That write-up was around 500 words, my one has over 1800 words. I have linked their original reddit post, and I recommend you check it out, as they covered this case first.
https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/dipz9h/karen_louise_wilson_missing_from_albany_ny_since/
Karen Louise Wilson was born on February 10th, 1963, to Taylor and Jennie Wilson. She was a popular student in high school and a cheer leader. She was then a full-time senior political science major at the State University of New York and an unpaid, full-time intern for state Assemblyman Samuel Coleman. She aspired to have a career in the foreign service.
On Wednesday the 27th of March 1985, the 22 year old vanished without a trace.
THE TIMELINE:
On the 27th, Karen went to the Colonie Center and bought a red t-shirt and a blue t-shirt to take with her on an upcoming spring break trip to Fort Lauderdale, Florida. She may have also gotten a tan at the Tanning Hut; she had booked an appointment that day but no one at the tanning salon could remember seeing her.
She was last seen in the 1600 block of Central Avenue in Colonie, New York at approximately 7:20 pm. She also called her roommate around this time, and said she was on her way home for dinner.
It was initially believed that Karen got on a bus near the Butcher Block restaurant on Central Avenue and took it to Fuller Avenue, but it was later determined that she couldn’t have gotten on the bus and probably walked instead. 3 credible witnesses would later tell authorities that they had seen her on Fuller Avenue shortly afterwards.
THE LAST 3 SIGHTINGS:
SIGHTING 1: The first witness told authorities that she saw Karen traveling southbound on Fuller Rd after she turned from Central Ave at 8:15pm.
She stated that as she approached a gas station on her left (believed to be the Workingman’s Friend Gas Station), she passed a very slow-moving vehicle, also traveling southbound. She could not recall any specifics of the vehicle's description, except that the driver was a white male in his forties with an intent look on his face. The male had a beard, brown hair with a reddish tint, and a long nose and face.
The witness then saw a female believed to be Karen, walking near a guide rail along the west side of Fuller Road near Sysco Food. By the time the witness reached Fuller Rd at Railroad Ave, she had already driven past the female.
SIGHTING 2: The second witness saw someone they believed to be Karen on the west side of Fuller Road. This was between 8:10pm - 8:15pm.
She stated that the female was walking south of the entrance of Six Mile Waterworks (also known as Rensselaer Lake) near the construction road leading west off Fuller Road. This area is located just north of the I-90 underpass. The female was walking on the grassy portion of the sidewalk, with her head down.
A smaller person of unknown sex was walking along the female’s right side "almost shoulder to shoulder" seemingly urging her up an embankment or incline into the Six Mile area. The smaller person was described as between 5'5 - 5'8 (165-172cm), and between 120-140lbs (54-64kg). When the female turned her head to the left, the witness thought she appeared nervous.
The witness also described a white male following 50 to 100 feet behind the two subjects. He was walking at a steady pace, not seeming to be gaining on the two. He was described as about 5'11 (180cm) with a slim build, in his early 20's, wearing dark pants and a waist length jacket which may have been beige. He had light colored hair (gold to red), and a beard or some other type of facial hair. The couple then returned to the sidewalk and began walking in a normal manner southbound on Fuller Road.
After the witness stopped at the red light at the I-90 ramp, and then continued southbound, she saw the couple past the dirt construction road on the right, just out from the I90 underpass.
She also stated that she saw a stopped or disabled small unoccupied black vehicle at Fuller Rd at Washington Ave Ext. The vehicle had a New York plate bearing partial plate 239 with unknown letters. The car was sedan style and believed to be about five years old. The driver's window was down about 6" and the passenger window was down about 2". She thought this was odd because it looked like it was about to rain. Also noted on the driver's side window was a hole about ¼" in diameter with cracks radiating from it. She thought that it looked like a bullet hole.
SIGHTING 3: The last sighting of Karen was by a third witness at approximately 8:20pm as he left work at the SUNY Albany Campus, and was waiting at the traffic light on Washington Ave and Fuller Rd.
He was waiting for traffic to clear so that he could turn right, proceed north on Fuller Rd and access the I-90 entrance ramp across from the Six Mile entrance. The female was reportedly seen standing on the northwest corner of Fuller Road for about 10 seconds while the witness was waiting for the traffic to clear. He believed that the female appeared to be waiting for the traffic light to change.
When he made the right turn onto Fuller Rd, the witness saw a male crossing Fuller Rd from the west side to the east side, just south of the I-90 underpass. He took a few steps up the driveway where the construction trailers were on the east side of Fuller but seemed to change his mind. He then walked south on the east side of Fuller Rd. The male subject did not appear to be looking towards Karen.
He was described as a white male with "sandy or light brown, messy or curly" hair, with a couple of days growth of facial hair. He was of average height, about 18 - 25 years old, and was wearing a jean (denim?) or aviator type jacket, jeans, a flannel shirt, and high tan construction boots.
As the witness turned right onto the I-90 ramp, he saw a lime green Volkswagen Rabbit (estimated to be a 1981 or 1982) parked along the road. There was no one around the vehicle. This appears to have been the last sighting of her, and she hasn’t been heard from since.
Due to these witness accounts, authorities believe Karen likely walked south on Fuller Avenue towards State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany. They concluded she was likely abducted somewhere near Six-mile Waterworks, the entrance ramp to Interstate 90 westbound and the Northway. The night was not well lit, and the road was not heavily traveled, making it possible for someone to pull her into a vehicle within a matter of seconds without leaving witnesses.
DESCRIPTIONS & BELONGINGS:
Karen was a Caucasian female listed at 5’3 (160cm) and 114lbs (51kg) with brown hair and brown eyes.
Investigators were unable to locate the personal belongings she had with her when she disappeared. These included: A gray cloth notebook, a blue nylon wallet with a Velcro closure, a green and white plastic bag from Ups N Down, and possibly a blue knapsack containing a yellow dress.
She was wearing a Cream-colored raincoat, a light blue short-sleeve pullover, faded blue Levi jeans and white sneakers. She also had a 14k gold ring, size 5 ½, with a turquoise zircon in raised setting along with 1/5 carat diamond on each side, a Seiko watch with a black face and gold numerals and white plastic earrings. The ring was approximately 40-50 years old.
Her dental records are available.
SUSPECTS:
1. A strange man was seen in the area around the time Karen vanished. He has never been identified and authorities have sought him for questioning, at least as a witness or possibly even a suspect.
2. Authorities announced that another suspect in the case was killed in an accidental house fire in 2013. He was never able to be conclusively linked to the case, and it’s thought he couldn’t be the perpetrator as he had reported to work at 4:00am, just a few hours after Karen vanished.
(On a personal note, this conclusion makes little sense to me. Karen’s last confirmed sighting was at around 7:20 pm, leaving nearly 9 hours in between her last known sighting and the time he clocked in to work. The last witness reported seeing her at 8:20pm which still leaves slightly under 8 hours.)
3. Authorities investigated the possibility that convicted murderer and suspected child-serial killer Lewis Lent Jr may have been involved in Karen's disappearance, but determined it was unlikely since Lent's previous victims were all children. He has not been ruled out.
THEORIES:
1. Police did investigate the possibility that Karen traveled to Florida after her disappearance as she had planned but found no evidence that she had ever left New York.
2. Her case has possible links to Suzanne Lyall’s abduction. Both were young, dark haired SUNY students abducted in the same manner. Authorities have investigated a possible link between the two. Both cases are unsolved.
The general consensus is that Karen was abducted and murdered.
PERSONAL THEORIES:
1. Due to Unresolved Mysteries not letting me add photos to this write-up I am unable to provide a sketch of the strange man seen in the area at the time. However, he has an uncanny resemblance to convicted serial killer John Bittrolff. It might be possible he is linked to the case, but this is simply an observation.
2. 2 young women were found murdered and floating in the river close to where Karen disappeared at the same time she vanished. It might be possible that the cases were linked.
CONCLUSION:
During the first year after her disappearance, Karen's family, who now live out-of-state, mailed thousands of letters pleading for information and advertising their $10,000 reward for new details about her disappearance. They have now given up hope of their daughter coming back alive, and simply want to find her body, so they can give her a proper burial and finally know what happened to their daughter.
I don’t have much hope of a conclusion for this case any time soon. It seems clear she was abducted and murdered, and without a body there is no evidence that could lead to anything. Unless her body is found, or someone comes forward, I see this case being unsolved for years to come.
Karen Louise Wilson has been missing for 38 years. If she is still alive, she would be 60 years old.
If you have any information about Karen's disappearance, please contact New York State Police at 518-783-3212.
SOURCES:
https://oag.ca.gov/missing/person/karen-l-wilson
https://www.pressrepublican.com/news/local_news/family-pleads-for-details-in-1985-disappearance-of-their-daughtearticle_36801912-fb94-5152-894d-fd9de58c0502.html
https://www.timesunion.com/7dayarchive/article/Cold-Case-UAlbany-student-still-missing-after-32-11820083.php
https://troopers.ny.gov/system/files/documents/2021/03/karen-wilson.pdf
https://troopers.ny.gov/missing-wilson-karen-louise
https://www.namus.gov/MissingPersons/Case#/5695/details
https://charleyproject.org/case/karen-louise-wilson
https://int-missing.fandom.com/wiki/Karen_Wilson
submitted by JeliPuff to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2023.06.06 01:10 sephstorm WFA Remaining games 2023

June 4, 2023 Raleigh Express v East Tennessee Valkyrie Raleigh, NC
June 10, 2023 Alabama Fire v Atlanta Rage Birmingham, AL
June 10, 2023 South Carolina Dames v Raleigh Express Columbia, SC
June 10, 2023 Carolina Phoenix v Jacksonville Dixie Blues Greensboro, NC
June 10, 2023 Oregon Cougars v Capital Pioneers Eugene, OR
June 10, 2023 Houston Energy v Austin Outlaws Houston, TX
June 10, 2023 Baltimore Nighthawks v Tri State Warriors Baltimore, MD
June 10, 2023 Cali War v Vixen Los Angeles, CA
June 10, 2023 Cincinnati Cougars v Grand Rapids Tidal Waves Cincinnati, OH
June 10, 2023 Columbus Chaos v Capital City Savages Columbus, OH
June 10, 2023 D.C. Divas 2023 v Detroit Venom Washington, DC
June 10, 2023 Arlington Impact v Zydeco Spice Arlington, TX
June 10, 2023 Iowa Phoenix v Minnesota Minx Des Moines, IA
June 10, 2023 Maine Mayhem v New Hampshire Rebellion Portland, ME
June 10, 2023 Miami Fury v Tampa Bay Inferno Miami, FL
June 10, 2023 Music City Mizfits v East Tennessee Valkyrie Nashville, TN
June 10, 2023 Nevada Storm v Mile High Blaze Reno, NV
June 10, 2023 New York Knockout v New York Wolves Schenectady, NY
June 10, 2023 Northern Connecticut Nightmare v Richmond Black Widows Windsor, CT
June 10, 2023 OKC Lady Force v Oklahoma Rage Oklahoma City, OK
June 10, 2023 Palm Beach Coyotes v Daytona Waverunners Palm Beach, FL
June 10, 2023 Pittsburgh Passion v Boston Renegades Pittsburgh, PA
June 10, 2023 Sioux Falls Snow Leopards v Nebraska Pride Sioux Falls, SD
June 10, 2023 St. Louis Slam v Derby City Dynamite St. Louis, MO
June 10, 2023 Sun City Stealth v Rocky Mountain Thunderkatz El Paso, TX
June 10, 2023 Virginia Panthers v Harrisburg Havoc Hampton, VA
June 10, 2023 Wasatch Warriors v Central Valley Chaos Wasatch, UT
submitted by sephstorm to lfl [link] [comments]


2023.06.05 20:00 StressedPizzaEater Swedish Defense and Civil Defense Ministers trip to Ukraine

I've worked on translating this and correcting as much as possible what the AI translator got wrong.
This depicts the experience of the Swedish Defense and Civil Defense Ministers trip to Ukraine from a human level.

First Tweet
https://twitter.com/CarlOskastatus/1665700384784932867

We are in a secret location where soldiers are being trained for war. Sweden's Minister of Defense, Pål Jonson, and I are in Ukraine.
The temperature in the sandpit we descended into is approaching 30 degrees. The Ukrainian gnats are as big as small flies and occur at a frequency that makes a Swedish cloudberries bog feel as gnat-free as a winter day. The men in front of us each hold an AK-47 in their hands. On a given order, they raise their rifles and open fire towards each other. They aim and shoot at the sand wall just inches to the side of each other. With live ammunition at a distance of about 20 meters. We stand another 20 meters away without earmuffs. That alone would surely be a matter for a personnel responsibility board back home in a country with over 200 years of peace. But here, there is war. The young men who have just pointed loaded rifles at their comrades lacked military experience just a couple of weeks ago. In a few more weeks, they will be fully trained. But they won't be mustered out and travel in Asia for their conscription compensation. They will go directly to the front, and everyone knows that for some, it will be a one-way trip. There is a seriousness in the eyes of everyone we meet, but not a hint of despair.
We continue walking in the fine sand amidst the continuous and deafening clatter of automatic rifles. At regular intervals, the dull pounding is interrupted by the sound of tank salvos that strike deep in the pit of the stomach. All of this is framed by a lush Ukrainian early summer landscape. Amidst all the impressions, a kind of dissonance arises. What is beautiful, good, and meaningful takes lifetimes to build. It takes decades to build a cathedral, centuries to build a city, but it only takes a moment to destroy them. In some way, this transience manifests one of humanity's darkest asymmetries. This fragility is most clearly expressed in human life itself. Nothing is as vast, complex, and beautiful as life, yet it can be extinguished irreversibly with the slightest means in an instant. I think of the young men in front of me. Those who today would have been doing something entirely different if it weren't for their country currently facing an enemy that not only wants to use death and destruction as a political tool but to erase everything that is uniquely Ukrainian. The young men have just fired a salvo in the sand wall next to their comrades, not out of carelessness or recklessness, but because it is considered one of the few things that can give a mental sense and a semblance of preparation for the hellish torment that awaits them at the front.
It is the morning of May 26th. The night was spent in Kyiv, part of it in a shelter. The heavy Russian bombers fired cruise missiles during the night, and one of them was heading towards Kyiv. From the parking garage that served as our shelter, we could hear the air defense system, in the form of the American Patriot battery, working successfully. As we get into the cars, the convoy rolls northwest out of Kyiv. Alongside the wrecks of Russian tanks, triumphantly placed in Maidan Square, and sandbags in front of basement windows converted into shelters, the physical traces of war are almost non-existent in the city environment.
After a fifteen-minute drive, our cars stop. We are standing on a bridge abutment, but in front of us, where there used to be a bridge, there is now only an empty space about ten meters above the Irpin River. The gap is lined with twisted beams, reinforcement bars, and broken concrete elements. On the other side of the destroyed connection lie the suburbs of Irpin and Bucha, forever inscribed in the history books for the war crimes committed by Russian forces there. It was here, on the other side of the bridge abutment, that the Russian advance came to a halt. It was here that Kyiv was saved, here and in a few other places. I am shown pictures of the men who held the bridge abutment. Dressed in ordinary down jackets and armed with a mixed assortment of whatever was available. "History never repeats itself, but it rhymes," said Mark Twain. It was on this very river that the Red Army once fought against Hitler's Germany. Back then, the Russians defended themselves against Nazi brutal expansionism; now, 80 years later, it is a bitter, power-hungry Russia that is waging an unprovoked and flagrantly illegal war of aggression, with a narrative as twisted and damaged as the broken bridge element in front of us.
The bridge is already being rebuilt, but a few hundred meters away, the traces of what was irreversibly done are visible. After crossing the river on a temporary bridge, we stop at what looks like a gigantic scrapyard in a parking space. Stacked on top of each other are the wrecks of burned-out cars. Just over a year ago, these vehicles belonged to people fleeing for their lives. Most in vain. Small messages are written on the wrecked cars. Sunflowers, the symbol of Ukrainian resilience, are painted on the burned-out wrecks. When the bridge over the Irpin River was blown up, long lines of cars trying to escape were formed. While the evacuation was taking place, Russian forces indiscriminately fired into the rows of cars with civilians fleeing.
The man who receives us in front of the burned-out wrecks is the mayor of Irpin and the commander of the territorial defense for Irpin, a kind of equivalent to the home guard. Together with his counterparts in the suburbs around Kyiv, he was tasked with evacuating his municipality and defending Kyivagainst the Russian advance. Over 95 percent of Irpin's population was evacuated. Lives were saved to an extent that is difficult to comprehend, but in his gaze, there is also a testimony to those who could not, would not, or did not have time to be saved. For his efforts, he and his colleagues were awarded the "Nation's Hero" medal. It is hard to imagine a more deserving recipient of such an honor. He thanks us for the great support that Sweden has provided. Pål and I object, saying that it is we who owe him and everyone in his position a thank you for the immensely significant efforts they have made for their residents, for their country, and for all of Europe. We are told that we must continue our journey, but we would love to stay and express our gratitude and reverence even more. Irpin's strong man, in the most fitting sense of the word, receives a big hug from me and Pål before we roll on.
In the car, it is impossible not to think about municipal preparedness back home in Sweden. There is a lot of good being done in Preparedness Sweden, but often we encounter the objection that the state must open its wallet for the right things to happen, or in the worst case, for something to happen at all. The contrast to the meeting with the mayor of Irpin is monumental. Not once did he mention resources, even though he acted under a constant and ongoing existential resource shortage. Sweden's municipalities receive over 100 billion kronor in general state grants every year. I think about the core mission of municipalities and wish that more municipal politicians could also meet the mayor of Irpin and contemplate what truly constitutes the core activities of a municipality. Later that day, in my Twitter feed, I read about a medium-sized Swedish municipality that has 40 communication officers employed. Often, municipalities of the same size emphasize that they now have one preparedness officer, as if that is an achievement. Politics is about prioritizing.

Second tweet:
https://twitter.com/CarlOskastatus/1665701191135756291
We have just turned off the highway towards Chernihiv and made our way onto smaller and smaller roads. The cars are rolling through an avenue of trees reminiscent of central Sweden, but in the image of what could have been Sweden, there is also a foreign element between each tree. On knocked-down wooden stakes, there is a small plastic sign with the unmistakable skull against a high-contrast background. "Danger - Mines." Everything except the narrow gravel road is ventured upon with life thrown into the equation. What used to be productive fields on either side of the road has been transformed into a dangerous no-man's-land. The men who meet us when we step out of the cars are engaged in mine and ammunition clearance. Twenty meters behind us, subordinate personnel walk around in the ruins of what used to be a building. The on-site chief apologizes for a moment as he makes an announcement on the radio for everyone to cease their search activities to ensure that nothing happens while we walk around.
Beside us are fenced-off areas surrounded by knee-high plastic tape. Inside the boundaries lie several artillery shells. Visually, the enclosed area reminds me of the training facility I visited with the Prime Minister at the MSB (Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency) outside Kramfors in April. There, indicators and markings were practiced on various replicas of mines and grenades. However, in front of us today, there are no replicas, only live undetonated grenades. This morning's findings are recounted by a member of the team. In addition to regular mines and unexploded grenades, the Russians have booby-trapped where one least expects it. It can range from aircraft bombs placed in a basement connected to a door handle to a small amount of explosive hidden in a discarded lighter lying on the ground. There are also examples of how booby-trapping is placed under regular mines and even under or around dead bodies. The person in charge on-site raises his hands in the air and bluntly states, "At the rate we are currently able to clear and secure areas, it will take us 750 years to rid Ukraine of mines and unexploded ammunition." Sweden is already helping in this area, but it becomes apparent that we and everyone else should do more. I promise to bring the question home and investigate what we can do.
A short distance from the burned-out wrecks of agricultural machinery at the mined and now unusable fields lies the small village of Yahidne. When the Russian campaign began encountering resistance in the advance towards Kyiv, Yahidne became yet another scene of Russian barbarism. The village's school was converted into a Russian military command center, the surrounding buildings were leveled, and the village's 300 inhabitants, including women, children, and the elderly, were gathered and forced into the basement of the school. The following 28 days turned the basement into a concentration camp. The captured residents began to die because they were deprived of the most basic human need - sufficient access to oxygenated air. In an article about Yahidne, some surviving villagers describe how the school, up until the invasion, was the pride of the village. A point of gathering, a place of hope for the future. The young generation's ticket to a better life than their elders. But it didn't turn out that way. What remains now is the school building as a trauma for all those who survived the hell in the basement. A place few want to approach. A building that still stands, but was used to destroy an entire village. A ruin of what could have been, and a testimony to what instead became.
I like transformer stations. The revelation is likely not surprising to those who have followed me in my previous role as chairman of the Parliament's Committee on Industry. Now we have arrived at one of the major transformer stations that are crucial for the residents of Kyiv to receive their electricity, heating, and water. The location we are at is a prioritized target for Russian remote warfare. We look at fallen high-voltage lines and burnt-out transformers. A cat comes up to us and greets us. The CEO tells us that it lives in one of the newly built technical stations. The old one turned into a pile of debris after being hit by a Russian cruise missile, but the cat survived and doesn't seem to have any plans to leave. I think about the information warfare on social media and how the carefree cat, if it were known, could have become a symbol of Russian imperfection.
By targeting this location and others like it, Russia has repeatedly attempted to disrupt the Ukrainian power grid in order to break the Ukrainian resistance and defense will. What Ukrenergo, the Ukrainian counterpart to the Swedish power grid, has achieved during this ongoing war is unparalleled. In Sweden, we have sometimes had the notion that our power plants are the most prioritized targets for military attacks, which has led, among other things, to the unfounded conclusion that we would need to shut down our nuclear power plants in times of heightened readiness. Anyone who knows how the power system works could tell you that this is a mistaken assumption, which is also confirmed by the outcome in Ukraine. Power plants are difficult to combat, but substations, transformer stations, and junction points are essentially easier targets. By attacking transformer stations linked to major consumption points, one not only causes significant problems for all downstream electricity consumers, but also creates imbalances that can propagate throughout the system and, in the worst case, destroy and disable the entire or parts of the power supply in a country.
The CEO tells us about the relentless race against time during the winter, repairs during ongoing remote warfare, and the ability to proactively shut down parts of the power system to better handle the imbalances caused by disabled junction points in the system. Ukraine's power system partly resembles the power system Sweden had in the 1980s—robust and predominantly based on predictable electricity production. This has been crucial for Ukraine to successfully endure the winter against all odds. Heavy predictable electricity production not only makes the power system less susceptible to disruptions but also makes it easier to sectionalize and run parts of the system in what is called emergency operation when other parts are vulnerable or have stopped functioning. This has enabled Ukraine to proactively shut down parts of the power grid during remote warfare, reducing the risk of disturbances spreading and damaging the entire system. Heavy predictable production is also one of the prerequisites for restarting the power system after a grid collapse. Sweden has reason to draw several lessons from what we have seen in Ukraine. Several of these are manifested in the parts of the Tidö Agreement concerning energy policy. In addition to this, the importance of reserve components and a well-functioning air defense cannot be emphasized enough to protect the power system from the pressures that an armed attack brings.
When we enter the room where Ukraine's Minister of Defense Oleksii Reznikov receives us, it is immediately noticeable that he has a warm and close relationship with Pål. Reznikov is interested in motorsports, and instead of the usual customary gifts, Pål has managed to arrange a pair of racing gloves signed by none other than Kenny Bräck, whom Pål knows from Värmland.
When Pål visited Reznikov already in December, they traveled together to Odesa and Mykolajiv. The Swedish Minister of Defense was then the minister in all of Europe who had traveled furthest east in Ukraine. If Pål had been able to decide for himself, without the involvement of Säpo, we would surely have been well on our way to the front to visit soldiers in the trenches by now.
I may be biased since we are colleagues, but before taking office, I didn't know Pål in any deeper detail. Behind an occasionally soft-spoken and strict demeanor, there is a person with material orientation and thematic knowledge at a level unique to the role, and a work ethic and drive that simply cannot be found everywhere. No other Defense Minister in modern times has had as many significant parallel commitments on their plate. NATO membership, a war in Europe with the development of military support packages, EU presidency, and the management of increased defense budgets. The conversation with Reznikov is candid and serious at the same time. We talk about the military support from Sweden that is coming soon and what the future needs look like.
It is time to move on from the Ministry of Defense to the place where we will meet with the President of Ukraine. It is not possible to overestimate Volodymyr Zelensky's importance for the determination and Ukrainian successes after February 24, 2022. No one knows exactly where we are going except the Ukrainian security service leading the way ahead of us. Checkpoints and security checks follow one another. Finally, Pål, myself, and the Swedish Ambassador, Tobias Thyberg, sit alone in a waiting room. After a short while, the door opens, and we are welcomed inside. Zelensky has a firm handshake and a presence in the room that is unparalleled. He thanks Sweden for everything we do, and we discuss the future. Our bilateral meeting was scheduled for fifteen minutes, but the conversation lasted for half an hour. We are escorted out of the building whose interior had clearly been transformed to meet the demands of war.
Last tweet:
https://twitter.com/CarlOskastatus/1665701959825752066
The final visit to Chernihiv is coming to an end. We have just been shown young men and women who are undergoing training to become mine and UXO clearers. The commander on site leads us into an adjacent building and says that it is finally time for some entertainment. In a large auditorium where we are the only guests, a military orchestra is lined up on the stage. To the right, on a big screen, a slideshow with the Swedish and Ukrainian flags is playing. As we sit down, we find out that many members of the orchestra are fighting on the front lines. Like everyone else, they have also suffered losses. The orchestra begins to play, and it is impossible to remain unaffected. Here I am, in a country at war, which has suffered so many hardships, listening to an orchestra playing ABBA for me and Sweden's Minister of Defense. It is impossible not to love Ukraine.
On the way home, I sit alone with Pål and summarize the impressions. There is so much that touches deeply. We talk about defense willingness and the importance of trying to increase understanding of what the security situation means and can mean for Sweden in every given situation. The Baltic countries have a gloomy view of what lies ahead. We talk about the mayor of Irpin and his men in territorial defense who fought with what they had and contributed to Kyivnever falling during the critical first days. Pål summarizes frankly: "It's about making a decision from the beginning, you have to give everything right away and fight hard, so damn hard. It hurts, but there is no alternative."
Carl-Oskar Bohlin
Minister for Civil Defense, Sweden
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2023.06.05 15:38 henryclark1 5 Best Places To Visit In The New York

Globally acknowledged as, ‘The Big Apple’, ‘The Never Sleeping City’ and sometimes also as ‘Gotham City’, New York is primarily known for its extraordinary scenic beauty, gratitude for being situated on a natural harbor, and the cityscape that brings life to the building after sunset. If you are planning to visit NYC with friends or family do look for a deal/offer with a reputed airline, for instance, Southwest Airlines Vacation Packages. However, New York has incalculable attractions including sky-scraper buildings amazing museums, lush parks, vibrant streets, restaurants, shops, and much more, the city has many things to offer to every visitor. Besides, charming college towns upstate, gorgeous lakes, and even world-famous waterfalls are just unique spots and centers of top attractions.
New York City is one of the top-visited 5 destinations in the world. So, visiting this dynamic city will just rejuvenate your mind exceptionally. This content contains five highly visited and most popular sights that no traveler should ever, ever, miss at any cost. This trip is going to offer you a wonderful memory forever, keep reading the post till the end.

  1. The Statue of Liberty
America's most famous sight, the Statue of Liberty is at the highest point of each and every first-time traveler's places to visit in New York list. Interestingly, it was actually a gift from France to America. Inaugurated in 1886, it still symbolized a world freedom icon and is known as one of the USA’s top attractions.
Being a 152 feet tall structure from the base to the light, it is popularly known to be one of the world's biggest sculptures, weighing roughly 450,000 pounds. You can see the sculpture from land, with especially great perspectives from Battery Park, on the southern tip of Manhattan.
To genuinely see the value in the Statue of Liberty, the best thing to do is to go on a short boat outing to Liberty Island and see it very close. Go for a soothing walk around the base, and on the off chance that you have reservations, enter the platform or the crown. The crown has now been opened for visitors, yet book well ahead of time to partake in this unique experience.
On a visit to the Statue of Liberty, you have the choice to stop at Ellis Island and explore the Migration Gallery. This phenomenal gallery is situated in the noteworthy movement station complex, where a great many outsiders were handled prior to entering the US.
2. The Central Park
A walk, carriage ride, and pedal through the crisscross ways of Central Park is a must-do on every traveler’s NYC visiting schedule. During the winter, you might bind up your skates and glide across Wollman Rink. This colossal park in the downtown area, a half-mile wide and 2.5 miles long, is something that makes NYC such a delightful and decent city.
Other than being an extraordinary spot to encounter a little nature, Central Park includes numerous attractions inside its lines, and the greater part of them are free, making it one of the thrifty and exceptional modest activities in New York City. The absolute most famous spots to visit incorporate the Belvedere Palace, Strawberry Fields, the Central Park Zoo, and the soothing Lake. In the event that you are looking for the recreation area all alone, begin by getting a guide at one of the guest places and schedule your road map.
You may apply one of the smart options to book cheap air tickets online. Experts also suggest preferring Southwest Low Fare Calendar would be a great way to reserve seats for New York City. Although, booking a flight of your choice is not restricted but this is an online tool that shows low-fare flights on different dates of a specific month. You can book a flight of your preference using this online tool with a very minimal budget too.
3. American Museum of Natural History
One of the most iconic museums for a family outing in NYC is the American Museum of Natural History has something to engage everybody. Eight extremely durable display halls boast all that is intriguing about the natural environment of the earth, from science and the climate to creatures and fossils.
This magnificent museum hosts unique shows that run for a pre-scheduled time. A portion of the ongoing displays that are definitely worth seeing remembers one for sharks, highlighting models of these astounding animals that you can really contact. Another interesting showcase is the exclusive 22-carat Okavango Blue Precious Diamond.
A feature of any visit is a walk around the Butterfly Studio. Inside this humid and warm environment-controlled house, you will share the space with more than 500 species of fluttering and colorful butterflies. However, visiting the American Museum of Natural History brings a fascinating experience and a sweet memory forever.
4. Times Square
Fixed with enormous, splendidly lit boards and screens, Times Square is the spot to go in NYC at night, yet exciting whenever of day. This is the area where New Year's Eve Festivities are organized and the renowned ‘ball drop’ at sharp 12 PM when the square and encompassing roads are loaded up with both foreign travelers and locals.
Times Square is a very fast location with densely crowded travelers however it scatters an allure of its own. This unique spot is recognized as an incredible place to enjoy some time off and pay high value to the amazing scenery around it. In general, most people prefer Southwest Low Fare Calendar to book flights online in advance. However, you may book a flight that justifies your preferences adequately.
Previously it was known as ‘Longacre Square’, but in 1904 it was renamed after the New York Times tower. The daily read English newspaper previously posted current titles along its moving sign, the first of its sort on the planet, in 1928.
On the off chance that you've had your fill of sitting on the seats and are searching for something enjoyable to do either collectively or as a couple, walk around to Madame Tussaud's Wax Gallery. The shockingly life-like wax dolls highlight New York City symbols like Jimmy Fallon and the arrangement of The Tonight Show, Broadway cast individuals and shows where you really get to spruce up and partake. The glass of the building dome distends over Times Square for magnificent views.
5. Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, or the Met, as it is popularly known, was established in 1870, and is quite one of the most popular museums in the USA. The super durable collection of The Met contains about 2 million artworks, spanning an extensive time frame of more than 5,000 years.
Albeit the Museum consists of three sites, the focal point is The Met Fifth Avenue. Features of this assortment incorporate the Decorative Arts of America, arms and armor, war outfits, Egyptian craftsmanship, ancient instruments of music, photos, and considerably more. Continuously changing shows bring a portion of the world's most well-known works to general visitors.
The Met Cloisters, situated in Fort Tryon Park in northern Manhattan, is another very famous New York exhibition Museum. This part of the Metropolitan Gallery of Art, housed in a remarkable design, beautified in medieval orders, sanctuaries, and lobbies, centers around the middle-age workmanship and architectural expertise of Europe.
Concluding Notion
The appealing beauty of New York City and truly exceptional sights will bring you a wonderful memory forever. However, experts suggest booking a flight always in advance to avoid the rush that usually occurs at the 11th hour and early booking is also a great way to save money on airfares. In this respect, you may also speak to an authorized executive to know about Southwest Airlines Vacation Packages or any ongoing offedeal. Moreover, booking hotels in advance is also an act of wisdom to escape unnecessary complications after reaching the destination.
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2023.06.05 14:20 Then_Marionberry_259 MAR 23, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER ACQUIRES 92 MILLION POUND INDICATED HISTORICAL 43-101 MOLYBDENUM RESOURCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

MAR 23, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER ACQUIRES 92 MILLION POUND INDICATED HISTORICAL 43-101 MOLYBDENUM RESOURCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA
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VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / March 23, 2023 / Granite Creek Copper Ltd. (TSX.V:GCX)(OTCQB:GCXXF) ("Granite Creek" or the "Company") is pleased to announce it has entered into an agreement to acquire a 100% interest in the Lucky Ship molybdenum property ("LS Molybdenum Project" or the "Project") from two arms length vendors. Under the terms of the agreement the Company has the option to acquire a 100% interest in the Project by issuing 3,750,000 shares over a three-year period and completing exploration work equivalent to two years worth of assessment credit during the first two years of the agreement and four years worth of assessment credit in the third year of the agreement to maintain the mineral claims in good standing.
The LS Molybdenum Project is located within the traditional territory of the Wet'suwet'en First Nation in central British Columbia and is in a region with a long history of mining including the Endako molybdenum mine, Huckleberry copper-molybdenum mine, Equity silver mine and others (see Figure 1 map below). The Project is accessible year-round along a well-developed network of forestry roads, with a high-capacity powerline within 50 kilometers, and paved highway and rail line access within 85 kilometers.
Tim Johnson, President and CEO, stated, "The addition of the LS Molybdenum project to our portfolio of critical minerals fits our strategy of value creation in the critical minerals space in safe political jurisdictions, focused on projects that show district scale potential and are under-explored. The LS Molybdenum project is complementary to our flagship PEA-stage Carmacks copper-gold-silver project where we have expanded the resource by 43% since acquisition and recently delivered a robust PEA in January 2023, highlighting the potential at that high-grade copper-gold-silver project. While we remain focused on advancing and expanding Carmacks, we see an excellent opportunity for creating significant shareholder value with the LS Molybdenum project during a time with few advanced stage molybdenum projects in the global pipeline and recent molybdenum prices trading at multi-decade highs due to the scarcity of supply in the market."
Mr. Johnson, continued, "Molybdenum is an important critical mineral identified in the Canadian Critical Minerals Strategy used to strengthen steel and with a wide variety of other technical uses in the green economy for high strength - low weight applications such as wind turbines, electric vehicle components, and solar panels. These uses are expected to drive the demand for molybdenum in the coming decades with the International Energy Agency estimating there will be at least a 2.9X growth in the demand for molybdenum by 2040 in clean energy technologies to achieve their Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS)1. Having a resource stage molybdenum asset in North America with potential to significantly grow puts Granite Creek in an excellent position to identify potential industrial partners in search of secure future supplies of molybdenum."
1International Energy Agency website
About the LS Molybdenum Project
The LS Molybdenum project hosts a porphyry Mo deposit with a granite porphyry stock intruding a larger quartz-felspar porphyry stock in contact with older volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Mineralization occurs as a near-vertical ring of porphyry Mo style stockwork veining between 25 to 125 m in width around the margin of the interior granite porphyry stock. Mineralization remains open at depth with mineralization drilled to approximately 150 to 400 m in depth (see Figure 2 Cross section below). Porphyry Mo systems often have multiple porphyry centers and a number of additional targets remain to be tested.
The Project hosts a historical NI 43-101 molybdenum resource consisting of 65.66 million tonnes averaging 0.064% Mo containing 92.6 million pounds of Mo in the Indicated category with an additional 10.24 million tonnes averaging 0.054% Mo containing 12.2 million pounds Mo in the Inferred category. The Mineral Resource Estimate ("MRE") was completed by A.C.A. Howe Int. Ltd with an effective date of May 1, 2008 and an amended date of June 30, 2008 to National Instrument 43-101 standards and is believed to be reliable. The resource was estimated using the inverse distance weighting (IDW2) interpolation technique, the search orientations and ranges of which were calculated through variographic analysis and consideration of the geological domain model. The Inferred and Indicated mineral resources were reported at a cut-off grade of 0.030% Mo. The full technical report entitled Technical Report on The Lucky Ship Molybdenum Project Morice Lake Area, Omineca Mining Division, British Columbia for Nanika Resources Inc. will be available on the Company's website. It is currently available on SEDAR under the Goldbar Resource Incprofile (formerly Nanika Resources), filed July 2, 2008. The resource estimate was made public in a news release dated May 14, 2008 which is also available on SEDAR under the Goldbar profile.
The deposit was subject to a 2007 Preliminary Economic Assessment ("PEA") completed by A.C.A. Howe Int. Ltd. The comprehensive PEA report has references to metallurgical recoveries, mineralization style, deposit geometry, proposed processing options and project sizing amongst others. The report, entitled Preliminary Economic Assessment of the Lucky Ship Molybdenum Project Morice Lake Area, Ominica Mining Division British Columbia for New Cantech Ventures Inc. is available on SEDAR under the Goldbar Resources Inc profile (formerly Nanika Resources), filed June 19, 2007.
The company cautions that it is not treating the PEA or the MRE as current mineral resources or reserves and the Company has not competed sufficient work to confirm either the MRE or the PEA. Any mention of the PEA or MRE are for reference only and the reports should not be relied on as current. For the company to treat the MRE as current additional work including, but not limited to, resampling, drilling and the implementation of the company's own Quality Control and Quality Assurance ("QC/QA) program would need to be completed. The PEA would have to be updated in the context of current market conditions by an independent party to be considered current.
Figure 1. LS Molybdenum Project Location
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As described in the Carmacks PEA technical report, the Company has identified the potential to add significant additional cash flow to the Carmacks project through processing of oxide tailings to increase total copper recovery. Recovery sensitivity from the PEA shows a potential additional $180M pre-tax net present value ("NPV") based of a 20% increase in recovery rates, which could represent an approximate 55% increase to base case NPV. The work to test the leaching response from this oxide tailings material is currently underway, with results anticipated by mid-2023 with updates to follow.
Qualified Persons
Debbie James, P.Geo., an independent Qualified Person, in accordance with the guidelines of the Canadian Securities Administrators' National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects has reviewed and approved the technical content of this news release. Ms. James has reviewed reports on the LS Molybdenum property, but has not made a site visit, and is relying on the work of prior qualified professionals.
About Granite Creek Copper
Granite Creek, a member of the Metallic Group of Companies, is a Canadian exploration company focused on the exploration and development of critical minerals projects in North America. The company's projects consist of its flagship 176 square kilometer Carmacks project in the Minto copper district of Canada's Yukon Territory on trend with the high-grade Minto copper-gold mine, operated by Minto Metals Corp., the advance staged LS Molybdenum project and the copper-nickel-PGM Star project both located in central British Columbia. More information about Granite Creek Copper can be viewed on the Company's website at www.gcxcopper.com.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:
Timothy Johnson, President & CEO Telephone: 1 (604) 235-1982 Toll-Free: 1 (888) 361-3494 E-mail: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Website: www.gcxcopper.com Metallic Group: www.metallicgroup.ca Twitter: @yukoncopper
Forward-Looking Statements
This news release includes certain statements that may be deemed "forward-looking statements". All statements in this release, other than statements of historical facts including, without limitation, statements regarding potential mineralization, historic production, estimation of mineral resources, the realization of mineral resource estimates, interpretation of prior exploration and potential exploration results, the timing and success of exploration activities generally, the timing and results of future resource estimates, permitting time lines, metal prices and currency exchange rates, availability of capital, government regulation of exploration operations, environmental risks, reclamation, title, and future plans and objectives of the company are forward-looking statements that involve various risks and uncertainties. Although Granite Creek Copper believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on a number of material factors and assumptions. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include failure to obtain necessary approvals, unsuccessful exploration results, changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined, results of future resource estimates, future metal prices, availability of capital and financing on acceptable terms, general economic, market or business conditions, risks associated with regulatory changes, defects in title, availability of personnel, materials and equipment on a timely basis, accidents or equipment breakdowns, uninsured risks, delays in receiving government approvals, unanticipated environmental impacts on operations and costs to remedy same, and other exploration or other risks detailed herein and from time to time in the filings made by the companies with securities regulators. Readers are cautioned that mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Mineral exploration and development of mines is an inherently risky business. Accordingly, the actual events may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. For more information on Granite Creek Copper and the risks and challenges of their businesses, investors should review their annual filings that are available at www.sedar.com.
Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
SOURCE: Granite Creek Copper Ltd.
View source version on accesswire.com: https://www.accesswire.com/745388/Granite-Creek-Copper-Acquires-92-million-Pound-Indicated-Historical-43-101-Molybdenum-Resource-in-British-Columbia-Canada

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2023.06.04 14:20 T-NNguyen Singapore: Nghịch lý phát triển

Singapore: Nghịch lý phát triển

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GS.TS. Hồ Sĩ Quý
(Viện Thông tin Khoa học xã hội)
Singapore là hiện tượng kỳ diệu của thế giới ở thế kỷ XX. Từ một thị trấn nghèo qua 3 thập niên với ý chí quyết đoán của người đứng đầu là Lý Quang Diệu, Singapore đã trở thành “thiên đường của chủ nghĩa tư bản”. Năm 2014, GNP đầu người của nước này là 72.000 USD tính theo PPP. Xã hội thịnh vượng. Môi trường trong lành. Quan chức liêm khiết. Cả thế giới muốn bắt chước, nhưng có nhiều điều không thể bắt chước và cũng có nhiều điều người ta không muốn bắt chước. Bởi Singapore phát triển trong những nghịch lý không dễ lý giải, mà nghịch lý lớn nhất là “cất cánh” rồi “hóa rồng” trong môi trường ít nhiều độc đoán, độc tài. Tự do, dân chủ bị quản lý chặt. Nhà nước can thiệp sâu vào đời sống thậm chí đời sống riêng tư của người dân. Kinh tế thị trường sôi động nhưng “bàn tay vô hình” của nó bị điều khiển bởi nhà nước. Tôn vinh đặc thù châu Á nhưng rất gần với phương Tây. Rất chú ý đến tính xã hội của sự phát triển nhưng lại xây dựng thành công một kiểu xã hội tư bản chủ nghĩa.
Ý chí cá nhân của Lý Quang Diệu được coi là nguyên nhân quan trọng làm nên sự thành công của Singapore. Và đó cũng lại là nguyên nhân khiến Singapore hiện ra không chỉ với toàn những điều tốt đẹp. Nhưng sự thịnh vượng đã làm mờ những điều không mấy nhân đạo trong sự phát triển của Singapore, che đậy và xóa đi các “vết đen” lịch sử.
I.
  1. Tháng 3/2015, khi ông Lý Quang Diệu nằm xuống, cả thế giới nói về ông, người đã biến Singapore từ một làng chài nghèo đói vào giữa những năm 1960 thành một thương cảng sầm uất nhất thế giới sau 30 năm, một đảo quốc xứng đáng là “viên ngọc quý của sự thịnh vượng” (Jewel of Prosperity). Bên cạnh những lời ngợi ca tưởng chừng đã vượt ra khỏi khả năng của ngôn từ, “người Cha sáng lập Singapore” (Singapore’s founding father) vẫn phải nhận không ít những phê phán từ nhẹ nhàng tới gay gắt. Khắp nơi, đặc biệt ở các nước đang phát triển, tranh cãi về ông dường như lại tăng thêm. Mặc dù, với Singapore, “biểu tượng thần kỳ của sự phát triển” (Miracle Symbols of the Development), hầu hết các các quốc gia ít nhiều đều muốn bắt chước[1]. Nhưng ngay cả sự bắt chước cũng đã chứa trong nó điều không mấy khả thi – nửa thế kỷ nay, Singapore gắn liền với tên tuổi của Lý Quang Diệu. Đó thực sự là hai trang của một tờ giấy. Và, không thể có trang này mà lại thiếu trang kia. Đây chính là một nghịch lý.
  2. Đảo quốc này quá nhỏ, dân số chỉ 5 triệu người, không có tài nguyên, “một trái tim không có cơ thể” (A heart without a body), chính Lý Quang Diệu đã nói như vậy[2]. Trái tim này phải cố gắng biến thế giới thành cơ thể của nó. Và điều “không tưởng” đó Singapore đã làm được. Đây là nghịch lý thứ hai.
  3. Lý Quang Diệu được nhiều học giả coi là đi theo khuynh hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa. Thời trẻ ông đã từng bắt tay với phong trào cộng sản và trong cuộc đời mình, không ít lần ông đã kịch liệt phê phán chủ nghĩa tư bản. Nhưng rốt cuộc, ông lại là người hết lòng xây dựng chủ nghĩa tư bản. Singapore của ông là tấm gương rực rỡ cho sự thành công của một “thiên đường tư bản chủ nghĩa”, “chủ nghĩa tư bản sạch” (Clean Capitalism, Capitalist Paradise[3]), một chủ nghĩa tư bản chẳng liên quan gì đến khái niệm của Max Weber. Đây là nghịch lý thứ ba.
  4. Lý Quang Diệu tin tưởng tuyệt đối vào kinh tế thị trường. Ông từng giảng giải “đừng bao giờ tin rằng có thể đi ngược lại sức mạnh của thị trường” (“Never believe you can go against market forces. If you try, then nothing will happen”[4]) nhưng Singapore của ông lại là điển hình cho sự can thiệp của nhà nước vào kinh tế thị trường, cả ở tầm vĩ mô đến những hiện tượng vi mô. Rất có thể quan hệ nhà nước với thị trường ở Singapore những thập niên qua đã vượt quá cả lý thuyết về kinh tế tự do của Friedrich Hayek hay của Keynes. Đây là nghịch lý thứ tư.
  5. Lý Quang Diệu là người có cảm tình với dân chủ. Thời trẻ, dân chủ là tiếng gọi lý tưởng của ông. Ông hiểu rõ giá trị dân chủ. Nhưng Singapore của ông là một thứ “chủ nghĩa tư bản chuyên chế” (Authoritarian Capitalism – trong bài chúng tôi sẽ dẫn ra những bằng chứng thật khó phản bác). Còn ông, dù được ngưỡng mộ đến mấy người ta vẫn phải xếp ông vào hàng những lãnh tụ “có bàn tay sắt”, quản lý theo phương thức toàn trị, độc tài, dù đó chỉ là một kiểu “chuyên chế mềm” (Soft Authoritarianism[5]). Lý lẽ đáng kể nhất của ông là, dân chủ, tự nó đã bất hợp lý ngay từ giả định đầu tiên rằng, tất cả mọi người đều bình đẳng và có đóng góp ngang nhau vào cái tốt đẹp chung (“The weakness of democracy is that the assumption that all men are equal and capable of equal contribution to the common good is flawed”[6]). Đây là nghịch lý thứ năm.
  6. Lý Quang Diệu nhiệt thành tin tưởng vào giá trị về trách nhiệm xã hội, một giá trị cốt lõi của Khổng giáo. Singapore hiện đại được ông xây dựng theo mô hình của những giá trị châu Á. Trong mắt ông, giá trị phương Tây khác biệt đáng kể nên khó phù hợp. Nhưng Singapore ngày nay, hơn bất cứ một quốc gia châu Á nào khác, kể cả Nhật Bản, lại rất giống phương Tây. Đây là nghịch lý thứ sáu.
  7. Về phương diện cá nhân, Lý Quang Diệu được tiếng là người giản dị đến xuề xòa, thực tế đến thực dụng, cởi mở đến phóng khoáng, thông minh đến thông thái, kiên quyết đến không hề biết nhân nhượng. Nhưng ông lại cũng là người “không thể làm bất cứ việc gì cẩu thả, từ việc mang một đôi giày bóng lộn đến ra một quyết định quan trọng”; không trói mình vào bất cứ vào lý luận nào hay lời khuyên nào, kể cả Macchiaveli và Khổng giáo, hai học thuyết mà ông rất tâm đắc. Ông lảng tránh tranh cãi đúng sai về các chủ thuyết, mà chỉ muốn tìm giải pháp thực tế cho những bài toán phát triển[7]. Đánh giá về ông, tờ tạp chí nổi tiếng “Life” ngay từ 1965 đã nhận xét, mà đến nay vẫn rất nhiều người dẫn lại rằng “Lý là người xuất sắc nhất, dù có đôi chút hung bạo” (“Lee is the most brilliant man around, albeit just a bit of a thug” [8]). Đó cũng là một nghịch lý của Singapore.
***
Vấn đề là ở chỗ, Singapore với 31 năm Lý Quang Diệu giữ cương vị Thủ tướng đã phát triển ngoạn mục trong những nghịch lý không dễ lý giải. Phẩm cách cá nhân của Lý Quang Diệu chắc chắn là nguyên nhân vô cùng quan trọng, nếu không muốn nói là nguyên nhân quyết định. Cùng một mô hình với Hàn Quốc và Đài Loan, nghịch lý lớn nhất của những nước này là đều tăng trưởng rồi “cất cánh” trong điều kiện ít nhiều độc đoán, độc tài. Một vài thế hệ đã trở thành vật hy sinh cho sự phát triển. Hàn Quốc “cất cánh” trong lao động khổ sai đầy nước mắt và có cả máu. Đài Loan “cất cánh” khi lãnh tụ giật mình về công tội của mình. Singapore được tiếng là sự trả giá để “cất cánh” dễ “chấp nhận” nhất. Sự thịnh vượng thực tế đã che mờ các “vết đen” lịch sử. Nhưng thực ra những hành vi độc đoán, toàn trị và thiếu cởi mở như những chứng cứ như chúng tôi sẽ trình bày trong những phần dưới đây, cũng thật khó “để rơi vào quên lãng” nhất là đối với những người trong cuộc.
II.
  1. Vào những năm 60, GDP thực tế của Singapore dưới 500 USD/người. Lúc đó Singapore rất nghèo, đang loay hoay tìm đường phát triển sau khi độc lập và sau cú sốc tách khỏi Malaysia. Sau hai thập niên, năm 1985 GDP của Singapore là 10.811 USD/người, nghĩa là đã vượt qua ngưỡng bị coi là nước nghèo (960 USD/người theo tiêu chuẩn của Liên hợp quốc, hoặc 875 USD/người theo tiêu chuẩn của WB). Không rơi vào cái bẫy thu nhập trung bình và dừng lại ở đó, Singapore tiếp tục phát triển và trở thành NIC, một trong 4 con hổ châu Á – điều kỳ diệu của thế kỷ XX. Đến năm 2003, GDP (tính theo PPP) Singapore là 29.663 USD đầu người năm; Chỉ số phát triển con người (HDI) 2005 là 0,925, xếp hạng 25/177 nước. Năm 2007, GDP (tính theo PPP) Singapore là 35.163 USD đầu người năm; Chỉ số phát triển con người (HDI) 2009 là 0,944, xếp hạng 23/182 nước. Năm 2011, GNP (tính theo PPP) Singapore là 52.569 USD đầu người năm; Chỉ số phát triển con người là 0,866 xếp hạng 26/183 nước. Năm 2013, GNP (tính theo PPP) Singapore là 52.613 USD đầu người năm; Chỉ số phát triển con người là 0,895 xếp hạng 18/186 nước. Năm 2014, GNP (tính theo PPP) Singapore là 72.371 USD đầu người năm; Chỉ số phát triển con người là 0,901 xếp hạng 9/186 nước[9].

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  1. Hệ thống cai trị ở Singapore được xem là minh bạch về chính trị và ít tham nhũng nhất trên thế giới. Trong xếp hạng hàng năm của Tổ chức Minh bạch quốc tế (Transparency International), Singapore vẫn thường nằm trong tốp các nước ít tham nhũng nhất. Vào năm 2005, Singapore với chỉ số CPI (Corruption Perceptions Index) là 9,4 xếp thứ 5 trong nhóm nước trong sạch nhất, chỉ sau Iceland, Phần Lan, New Zealand và Đan Mạch. Năm 2012, với chỉ số CPI 87, Singapore là quốc gia minh bạch xếp hạng thứ 5 của thế giới. Năm 2014, điểm sáng duy nhất của khu vực Đông Á vẫn là Singapore với chỉ số CPI là 84 (dù có thấp hơn mức CPI của chính Singapore năm 2011 và 2012), nhưng chỉ đứng sau 6 nước là Thụy Sĩ, Na Uy, Thụy Điển, Phần Lan, New Zealand và Đan Mạch; Singapore vẫn là quốc gia minh bạch hàng đầu thế giới[11].
Để có vị trí này, Singapore đã trải qua một quá trình đấu tranh nghiêm khắc ngay từ khi Lý Quang Diệu mới lên nắm quyền. Ông Lý hiểu sâu sắc hơn bất cứ ai về sự nguy hiểm của tham nhũng, không chống được tham nhũng thì mọi mục tiêu phát triển trở thành vô nghĩa. Bàn tay sắt của ông đã được hỗ trợ bằng một cơ chế hiệu quả. Khi ông qua đời, mạng corruption.net đánh giá, trong số các nhà lãnh đạo thành công và không thành công, không ai có liều thuốc chống tham nhũng tốt hơn Lý Quang Diệu[12].
  1. Trong ba yếu tố tạo nên tham nhũng, vào những năm 60, Singapore chưa thể làm gì với thực trạng lương bổng vì lúc đó đất nước vẫn còn nghèo. Vì vậy, chính phủ chọn tấn công vào hai yếu tố tạo tham nhũng còn lại: giảm thiểu cơ hội tham nhũng và tăng cường hình phạt. Luật chống tham nhũng mới ra đời với 32 phần, thay bộ luật cũ năm 1937 với 12 phần. Có một số sửa đổi quan trọng như án tù tăng lên, người nhận hối lộ phải trả lại hết tiền đã nhận. Văn phòng điều tra tham nhũng (CPIB) được tăng quyền hạn, với khả năng điều tra “mọi tài khoản ngân hàng” của những ai bị nghi có hành vi phi pháp. Một người có thể bị khép tội tham nhũng ngay cả khi người đó chưa nhận tiền hối lộ, nếu ý định phạm pháp đã đủ để khép tội. Công dân Singapore phạm tội nhận hối lộ ở nước ngoài cũng bị xử như phạm pháp trong nước. Cả khi bị cáo qua đời, tòa án cũng có quyền trưng thu tài sản tham nhũng.
  2. Mãi tới thập niên 80, khi kinh tế đã phát triển, Singapore mới đủ khả năng làm nốt phần còn lại trong chiến lược chống tham nhũng là tăng lương cho công chức. Tháng 3/1985, Thủ tướng Lý Quang Diệu tuyên bố các lãnh đạo chính trị cần được trả lương thật cao để “dưỡng liêm” bảo đảm cho chính quyền trong sạch. Ông nói cách hay nhất chống tham nhũng là “đi cùng thị trường”, thay cho thói đạo đức giả đã tạo nên tham nhũng[13].
Theo GS. Jon S.T. Quah, khoa chính trị học Đại học Quốc gia Singapore, kinh nghiệm của Singapore không dễ lặp lại ở các nước khác vì hoàn cảnh đặc thù và vì những chi phí chính trị và kinh tế của việc trả lương cao. Tuy nhiên, có 6 bài học có thể tham khảo được. Đó là:
  • Bộ máy lãnh đạo phải thực tâm chống tham nhũng và trừng phạt bất cứ ai có hành vi tai tiếng.
  • Các biện pháp chống tham nhũng phải đầy đủ, không có lỗ hổng và thường xuyên được xem xét lại để thay đổi, nếu cần thiết.
  • Cơ quan chống tham nhũng phải trong sạch. Không nhất thiết phải có quá nhiều nhân viên, và bất kỳ thanh tra nào tham nhũng cũng phải bị trừng phạt và đuổi ra khỏi ngành.
  • Cơ quan chống tham nhũng phải tách khỏi bộ máy cảnh sát.
  • Để giảm cơ hội tham nhũng tại các ngành dễ sa ngã như hải quan, thuế vụ, công an giao thông, các cơ quan này phải thường xuyên kiểm tra và thay đổi qui định làm việc.
  • Động cơ tham nhũng trong khối nhân viên nhà nước và quan chức có thể giảm bớt nếu lương và phụ cấp cho họ có tính cạnh tranh với khu vực tư nhân.
  1. Đảng Nhân dân Hành động (PAP – People’s Action Party; 人民 行动 党) cầm quyền không phải là đảng duy nhất tồn tại ở Singapore, nhưng là đảng duy nhất lãnh đạo và có vị trí được coi là không thể thay thế đối với sự phát triển của đảo quốc này, ít nhất là cho đến nay. Đảng PAP đã có nhiều biện pháp tự do hóa nền kinh tế và thu hút vốn nước ngoài, thực hiện nhanh chóng công cuộc cải biến kinh tế, xã hội và nâng cao chất lượng sống, nhưng cũng bị coi là toàn trị và không kém độc đoán.
Vai trò điều tiết vĩ mô của chính phủ thể hiện rộng khắp trong mọi mặt của đời sống kinh tế, tạo nên một ví dụ kinh điển về mối quan hệ tiềm ẩn khả năng tích cực giữa nhà nước và thị trường, giữa bàn tay cứng rắn của pháp luật với đời sống tự do của dân chúng, giữa trách nhiệm cá nhân và kỷ cương xã hội, giữa tính minh bạch và phát triển kinh tế: chính phủ lập kế hoạch dự thảo ngân sách cho mọi hoạt động từ tài chính quốc tế cho đến thu gom rác; chính phủ sở hữu, kiểm soát, điều tiết hoặc phân bố đất đai lao động và nguồn vốn; chính phủ ấn định hoặc tác động đối với nhiều loại giá cả làm cơ sở cho các nhà đầu tư tư nhân tính toán kinh doanh và quyết định đầu tư.
  1. Sự can thiệp của nhà nước trong nền kinh tế đã ảnh hưởng tích cực không chỉ đối với lợi ích của doanh nghiệp tư nhân, mà còn đối với phúc lợi chung của nhân dân. Ngoài việc tạo ra việc làm trong các khu vực tư nhân và nhà nước, chính phủ còn cung cấp nhà ở hỗ trợ, giáo dục và y tế và các dịch vụ giải trí cũng như vận tải công cộng. Chính phủ quyết định mức tăng lương hàng năm và dự định mức phụ cấp ngoài lương tối thiểu trong các khu vực nhà nước và tư nhân. Chính phủ còn quản lý quỹ tiết kiệm hưu trí thông qua Central Provident Fund và Post Office Bank, tạo điều kiện cho cá nhân có các cổ phần tại các doanh nghiệp.
  2. Như đã nói ở trên, những sự thay đổi của Singapore gắn liền với tên tuổi Lý Quang Diệu, Thủ tướng Singapore giai đoạn 1959-1990, người đã dùng quyền lực của mình tác động vào mọi khía cạnh, mọi hoạt động, thậm chí mọi ngóc ngách trong cuộc sống của người dân nước này. Điều này đối với một số người dân Singapore là bình thường, một số khác thấy tự do của mình bị vi phạm. Và khi Singapore “hóa rồng”, tất cả những can thiệp phi lý, tàn nhẫn, vượt quá thẩm quyền của Lý Quang Diệu và chính thể Singapore lại trở thành công lao.
Nhứng năm 1960 và 1970, để hạn chế gia tăng dân số, ở Singapore, phụ nữ sinh con thứ ba trở đi sẽ phải hưởng thời gian nghỉ thai sản ngắn hơn, đồng thời phải chi trả mức viện phí cao hơn và quyền giảm trừ thuế của họ cũng bị ảnh hưởng. Đặc biệt, chính phủ Singapore thưởng 5.000 SGD cho bất cứ cặp vợ chồng nào chấp nhận triệt sản sau đứa con thứ hai. Họ cũng sẽ được ưu tiên đăng ký mua nhà ở giá thấp và con cái của họ được hưởng các ưu đãi khác ở nhà trường. Những người Kyto giáo không chấp nhận nổi cách cư xử này. Nhưng mọi tiếng nói phản đối đều vô hiệu. Năm 1983, Lý Quang Diệu thay đổi quan niệm, ông tuyên bố phụ nữ trí thức nên có 3 đến 4 con và kêu gọi nam giới nên kết hôn với phụ nữ trí thức. Tuyên bố này gây tranh cãi lớn trong toàn xã hội. Ngay cả những phụ nữ là trí thức cũng cảm thấy bị xúc phạm và họ đã phản đối kịch liệt.
Về quản lý trật tự xã hội, những hành vi như xả rác, hút thuốc hay khạc nhổ nơi công cộng đều bị phạt tiền, thậm chí bị đánh roi, kể cả đối với người nước ngoài. Năm 1994, hình phạt đánh roi dành cho Michael Fay, một công dân Mỹ đã làm cả thổng thống Clinton và nhiều thượng nghị sỹ Mỹ phải lên tiếng.
Một đạo luật được Lý Quang Diệu ban hành đã bắt buộc người lao động phải tiết kiệm 1/4 số tiền lương mỗi tháng. Khoản tiền này sẽ chỉ được rút ra khi người lao động 55 tuổi. Chính phủ quản lý sẽ dùng số tiền này để phục vụ cộng đồng.
Ở Singapore, còn có nhiều điều luật, quy tắc, quy định… mà ở nước khác thì có thể bị kết tội vi phạm quyền con người, quyền công dân. Dân chúng hài hước đùa rằng, với các nước khác, điều gì không cấm thì có thể làm, riêng với Singapore, điều gì không cấm thì buộc phải làm; còn điều gì đã cấm thì chỉ phải nhịn đến khi đi du lịch nước ngoài[14].
  1. Đánh giá về Lý Quang Diệu, Tom Plate, nhà báo nổi tiếng của tờ Los Angeles Time cho rằng:
“Thế kỷ XX đã có không biết bao nhiêu cuộc đời, bao nhiêu linh hồn bị hủy hoại chỉ vì một lãnh tụ có thái độ mù quáng tôn thờ một chân lý duy nhất. Lý Quang Diệu không muốn trở thành nhà lãnh đạo kiểu đó. Thực tế ông bị quyến rũ bởi vũ điệu của những ý tưởng thông minh chứ không phải những bước nhảy ngớ ngẩn, vụng về của quỷ dữ. Ông cũng hoàn toàn không phải là một kẻ lập dị như Pol Pot hay một tiểu Hitler nông nổi”… “Lý Quang Diệu giống như Muhamad Ali vĩ đại, di chuyển nhẹ như bướm và đốt đau như ong (bạn không nên ghi tên mình vào danh sách đen của ông, vì nếu thế bạn sẽ bị ông dồn vào góc tường, kiện bạn đến cùng và bạn sẽ xong đời)”… “Singapore hẳn nhiên không phải là thiên đường đối với kẻ buôn bán ma túy, cũng nhất định không phải là thiên đường trên mặt đất đối với những người phản đối chính phủ và đảng cầm quyền. Trong những nghề có đặc quyền riêng mà bạn thấy đáng tự hào ở phương Tây thì luật sư bào chữa các vụ án hình sự ở Singapore của Lý Quang Diệu ít có quyền lực hơn nhiều. Những người ủng hộ tu chính án thứ nhất hẳn sẽ không thấy có niềm vui của xứ Utopia khi phải đối mặt với đường giới hạn tinh vi nhưng rất nghiêm ngặt dành cho giới truyền thông ở đây” [15].
Toàn bộ những dòng này, Lý Quang Diệu đã đọc và sửa trước khi xuất bản. Nghĩa là ông thừa nhận và chỉ cần như thế người đọc cũng có thể hiểu và suy diễn, kiểm chứng thêm nhiều điều. Chúng tôi đánh giá cao Tom Plate; qua những dòng này, Tom đã thể hiện mình là cây bút “có hạng”, khôn khéo không để cho ngòi bút của mình mất đi tính khách quan, nhưng cũng không vì thế mà làm hỏng điều căn bản nhất – ngồi lại với Lý Quang Diệu, truy vấn ông về tất cả những gì đã làm nên điều kỳ diệu Singapore. Khó mà phủ nhận được, với Lý Quang Diệu và Đảng Nhân dân hành động, Singapore không có chỗ cho những người đối lập. Nếu ai đó bị đưa vào danh sách đen, người đó sẽ bị “dồn vào góc tường, và sẽ xong đời”. Chính thể này không nhẹ tay với án hình sự và công nhiên hạn chế quyền bào chữa của luật sư. Có ranh giới rất tinh vi nhưng rất nghiêm ngặt dành cho giới truyền thông… Có lẽ, chỉ với chừng ấy nội dung, bất cứ nước nào ngày nay nếu chủ trương như vậy cũng sẽ bị xếp vào dạng có vấn đề về nhân quyền. Nhưng Singapore là đảo quốc nhỏ bé, thực ra là một thành phố, cũng là thành phố nhỏ nếu so với Bangkok, Hà Nội hoặc thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, nên tất cả những gì cộm lên đều đã bị xóa mờ bởi một Singapore giàu có, trong lành và phát triển.
  1. Trên thực tế, Lý Quang Diệu đã bị chỉ trích nhiều vì đã áp dụng những biện pháp cứng rắn đàn áp phe đối lập, cản trở tự do ngôn luận, cấm mít tinh, biểu tình (bằng chính giấy phép của cảnh sát), hạn chế các ấn phẩm không vừa ý chính quyền và sử dụng các luật lệ về tội phỉ báng để cố tình và bằng mọi cách đẩy những đối thủ chính trị vào tình trạng phá sản. Về những hành vi này, Devan Nair, Tổng thống Singapore từ năm 1981 (đến năm 1985 từ chức vì bất đồng quan điểm với Lý Quang Diệu, năm 1995 ông định cư tại Canada) nhận xét rằng, thủ đoạn của Lý Quang Diệu là khởi kiện đối thủ, gây áp lực với tòa án và các văn phòng luật sư, làm cho đối thủ không gỡ được để thoát ra khỏi các thủ tục và chi phí tố tụng, cho đến khi họ phá sản hay thân bại danh liệt. Làm như vậy Lý đã tìm cách thủ tiêu các quyền chính trị của đối thủ. Devan Nair cho rằng, càng về sau Lý Quang Diệu “ngày càng trở thành loại người tự cho mình biết đủ và biết đúng mọi sự”. Cũng giống như các nhà độc tài khác, ông Lý cũng như bị vây quanh bởi “những kẻ bù nhìn”. Devan Nair đưa ra những nhận xét này vào năm 1999. Thậm chí ông còn nói “Singapore hôm nay là nơi vô hồn, hệ tư tưởng của nó chỉ là vật chất mà thôi” (Singapore today is a soulless place whose only ideology is materialism). Nổi khùng trước những nhận xét này, Lý Quang Diệu lại đâm đơn kiện Devan Nair[16].

https://preview.redd.it/jgpqzv2euz3b1.png?width=551&format=png&auto=webp&s=d1f01e216016c2850b551966d1448d55bee40dcb
Đã có trường hợp, sau khi toà kháng án bác bỏ phán quyết có lợi cho Lý Quang Diệu, chính phủ bèn hủy bỏ quyền kháng án. Suốt trong thời gian đảm nhiệm chức thủ tướng từ 1965 đến 1990, Lý Quang Diệu đã bỏ tù Tạ Thái Bảo (Chia Thye Poh), một cựu dân biểu quốc hội thuộc đảng đối lập Barisan Socialis, trong 22 năm mà không xét xử, chiếu theo Luật An ninh Nội chính, ông này chỉ được trả tự do vào năm 1989. Để có thể dành quyền hạn tuyệt đối cho các thẩm phán, Lý Quang Diệu đã huỷ bỏ luật “Xét xử có bồi thẩm đoàn”[17].
  1. Theo George T. (Thayil Jacob Sony George), cố vấn biên tập của tờ The New Indian Express, tác giả chuyên về chính trị và tiểu sử chính khách; trong cuốn “Singapore của Lý Quang Diệu”, nhận xét rằng, để quản lý Singapore, Lý quang Diệu đã không ngần ngại sử dụng các thủ đoạn đối với phe đối lập và cả đối với dân chúng. Trong việc tiêu diệt đối thủ của mình, chiến thuật của ông có thể so sánh được với việc dùng một quả bom nguyên tử để tấn công một con muỗi. Đầu năm 1963 trong một cuộc bầu cử, ông đã sử dụng Đạo luật An ninh nội bộ Anh để bỏ tù 100 thành viên chủ chốt của nhóm thân cộng Barisan Sosialis cánh tả, vốn tách ra từ đảng PAP. Những người còn lại sau bầu cử chỉ được chọn vào các vị trí hành chính không có quyền lực chính trị thực sự[18].
Sau cuộc bầu cử năm 1997, ứng cử viên Công đảng Tang Liang Hồng phải đối mặt với vụ kiện bởi 11 người thành viên đảng PAP, bao gồm cả cựu Thủ tướng Goh và Bộ trưởng cao cấp Lý Quang Diệu. Ông Tăng bị khép tội là đã phỉ báng Kitô giáo và Hồi giáo trong quá trình vận động tranh cử[19].
J. B. Jeyaretnam nhà lãnh đạo của Công đảng từ năm 1971 đến năm 2001, cũng phải đối mặt với một loạt tội phỉ báng. Năm 1981, ông trở thành chính trị gia đối lập đầu tiên của Singapore trong Quốc hội, khi ông đánh bại ứng cử viên đảng PAP. Ông tái đắc cử năm 1984, nhưng bị mất ghế Quốc hội năm 1986 khi bị quy tội một cách bất công là chiếm quỹ của đảng (tội danh này sau đó được lật ngược bởi Hội đồng Cơ mật của Vương quốc Anh). Ông trở lại Quốc hội sau cuộc tổng tuyển cử năm 1997. Tuy nhiên, ông đã bị tước ghế nghị sỹ năm 2001 khi bị phá sản vì không thanh toán kịp cho các nhà lãnh đạo đảng PAP về vụ kiện[20].
Chee Soon Juan, lãnh đạo Đảng Dân chủ Singapore (SDP), giải thưởng Dân chủ năm 2003 và Tự do năm 1011 (“Defender of Democracy”, 2003; Prize for Freedom, 2011), đã bị bắt và bỏ tù nhiều lần vì các hoạt động tổ chức biểu tình và các phát biểu công khai về chính trị. Ông bị kiện vì tội phỉ báng đảng PAP và vì thế đã bị phá sản vào năm 2006 khi không bồi thường nổi cho Lý Quang Diệu và Goh Chok Tong, mặc dù vợ chồng ông đã phải bán ngôi nhà để trả chi phí vụ kiện. Theo Chee, Ở Singapore, chính phủ kiểm soát tất cả và đó là lý do gây sợ hãi trong dân chúng[21].
  1. Tháng 3/2000, Uri Gordon, giảng viên Đại học Loughborough, Anh, và là nghiên cứu viên Viện Khoa học Chính trị, Đại học Tel Aviv, Israel đã công bố một nghiên cứu so sánh giữa những phương thức, biện pháp và thủ đoạn của nền chính trị độc tài, được mô tả trong các tác phẩm của Niccolò Machiavelli và phương thức độc tài thực tế của Lý Quang Diệu đối với đất nước Singapore.
Mặc dù giữa nước Ý thế kỷ XVI và Singapore thế kỷ XX là cách nhau quá xa, nhưng những điều được phân tích trong tác phẩm của Niccolò Machiavelli và phương thức lãnh đạo đất nước của Lý Quang Diệu lại có những điểm tương đồng đến kỳ lạ. Được biết Lý Quang Diệu cũng rất mê Machiaveli và đây chính là lý do để Uri Gordon so sánh Lý Quang Diệu với những “nguyên tắc Machiaveli”.
Cần phải nói đôi điều về Machiaveli trước khi bàn đến sự so sánh của Uri Gordon. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469-1527), ông tổ của khoa học chính trị hiện đại, nhà ngoại giao, nhà triết học, “một nhân vật khổng lồ của thời đại Phục hưng” (F. Engels). Ông được biết đến với các luận thuyết vô cùng sắc sảo nêu rõ bộ mặt của chủ nghĩa hiện thực chính trị (trong tác phẩmThe Prince) và bản chất của nền cộng hòa (trong tác phẩm Discourses on Livy). Hai cuốn sách này cùng với cuốn History of Florence trở thành mô hình kinh điển chỉ dẫn cho nhiều nhà cầm quyền và cho các phân tích chính trị từ thế kỷ XVI đến nay. Theo Machiaveli, “Bậc quân vương phải biết học hỏi từ bản tính của dã thú, biết kết hợp sức mạnh của sư tử với sự tinh ranh của cáo. Sư tử không thể tự bảo vệ mình tránh các cạm bẫy, còn cáo thì lại không thể chống lại sói. Vì thế, cần phải là cáo để nhận ra những cạm bẫy, và là sư tử để dọa sói”[22]. Chính Lý Quang Diệu cũng có vẻ rất tâm đắc với tư tưởng này, khi ông bình luận về Machiaveli rằng: “Giữa được yêu thương và được sợ hãi, tôi luôn tin rằng Machiavelli đúng. Nếu không ai sợ tôi, thì tôi chẳng có ý nghĩa gì” (“Between being loved and being feared, I have always believed Machiavelli was right. If nobody is afraid of me, I’m meaningless”)[23].
Nguyên tắc Machiaveli là nguyên tắc của nền chuyên chính tư sản. Tất cả đều do ý chí, tâm hồn, hành động của con người quyết định. Nhà chính trị mẫu mực là người có đầu óc phê bình mạnh bạo, có tư tưởng duy lý phi tôn giáo, có lòng căm ghét bọn quý tộc ăn bám, và có khát vọng muốn xây dựng đất nước (thời đó và đất nước mà Machiveli nói đến là Italia) thành một quốc gia thống nhất, tự do, bình đẳng với một chính quyền mạnh, sử dụng bạo lực để xây dựng trật tự mới. Theo Machiaveli, con người muốn xứng đáng là một con người phải tiến thẳng vững vàng tới mục đích. Mục đích sẽ chứng minh tính đúng đắn của biện pháp. Machiavelli cũng đưa ra vô số lời khuyên về những thủ đoạn mà các quân vương nên áp dụng. Theo Machiavelli, đấng quân vương nào muốn thành công thì phải học được cách gác lòng tốt sang một bên, việc có vận dụng nó hay không tùy thuộc vào thời thế. Một quân vương, theo ông, cần biết tùy thời mà tốt hay không tốt, nhưng phải làm ra vẻ mình có đầy đủ mọi đức tính. Điều quan trọng nhất đối với quân vương là cần tránh bị khinh miệt và thù ghét. Machiavelli cũng thấy rất rõ tầm quan trọng của “lòng dân”. “Không có chính sách nào toàn vẹn, cần phải biết chọn lấy cái bất lợi nhỏ nhất” – tư tưởng này cũng được coi là một nguyên tắc Machiaveli[24].
Theo Uri Gordon, các quan điểm và hành động chính trị của Lý Quang Diệu chính là sự giải thích một cách mạnh mẽ (powerfully interpreted) cho tính hiệu quả của các “nguyên tắc Machiavelli”. Ông Lý đã chủ động vận dụng các nguyên tắc Machiaveli, kể cả trong việc đưa ra luận thuyết “giá trị châu Á”.
Trên thực tế, đảng cầm quyền (PAP) luôn thực thi các hành động chính trị nhằm tìm mọi cách duy trì chế độ độc đoán, dập tắt các bất mãn và nghiền nát các lực lượng đối lập. Singapore là một đất nước mà quyền con người được xem là không cần thiết trong cuộc đua phát triển kinh tế (“Singapore is a country where human rights have come to be seen as nonessential in the race towards national economic excellence”). Dựa vào lợi nhuận của chủ nghĩa tư bản hiện đại Singapore, chính phủ cung cấp cho các công dân của mình các loại phúc lợi với chi phí lấy từ lao động của họ. “Phe đối lập được chờ sẵn các án tù chính trị. Chính phủ kiểm soát toàn bộ quá trình bầu cử và tiến hành các vụ kiện đối với bất kỳ lời phát biểu nào chống lại chính quyền. Mọi sự phê phán chính quyền đều biến thành hành động tự sát chính trị. Ban cho dân một cuộc sống mà chính phủ có thể tự do kiểm soát, Lý và các phụ tá của ông có thể được xem như là đệ tử thuần thành của nhà nước kiểu Florentine”[25].
Khi Singapore được cả thế giới nhìn nhận là một đảo quốc thịnh vượng, an toàn và trong sạch, với sự có mặt của các tập đoàn đa quốc gia hùng mạnh nhất trên thế giới, người ta thường chỉ rút ra kết luận rằng, nếu không có một nhà lãnh đạo như ông Lý, Singapore sẽ phải mất nhiều thời gian hơn để đạt được những thành tựu mà thế giới đang chứng kiến và muốn bắt chước. Theo chúng tôi, nếu Uri Gordon không thiên kiến, thì đúng là Lý Quang Diệu đã một lần nữa chứng minh cho quan điểm chuyên chính cực đoan tư bản chủ nghĩa – Mục đích có thể biện minh cho biện pháp, dù biện pháp ấy chẳng hề chính đáng chút nào.
Kết luận
Kể từ nền dân chủ Athens, loài người đã 2500 năm đi theo con đường dân chủ tự do với lịch sử đầy máu và nước mắt. Càng ngày, các dân tộc càng nhận thấy “nhân quyền, tự do, dân chủ là xu hướng không thể đảo ngược và là đòi hỏi khách quan của xã hội loài người”. Ở Việt Nam, chính Thủ tướng Nguyễn Tấn Dũng đã mạnh mẽ khẳng định điều này[26]. Dân chủ, bản thân nó có thể tạo ra nguồn lực cho sự phát triển. Dân chủ trong phát triển là phương thức hữu hiệu nhất để tránh phải trả giá. Dân chủ có khả năng đem lại hạnh phúc hợp lý cho các xã hội, cho từng con người, từ lãnh tụ tới người dân. Ngày nay không lý lẽ nào có thể biện minh nổi cho sự phát triển mà phải sự hy sinh con người, dù đó là một cá nhân, một cộng đồng hay một thế hệ. Hàn Quốc, Đài Loan ngày nay là các xã hội có trình độ dân chủ cao của châu Á. Nghịch lý Singapore có thể không dễ lý giải, nhưng cũng không phải là bằng chứng cho sự đi ngược lại xu thế tự do dân chủ.
Tạp chí “Khoa học xã hội Việt Nam” (2015), số 7 (92), tr. 47-56.
Nguồn bài đăng
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2023.06.04 12:03 Then_Marionberry_259 MAY 02, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER PROVIDES ADDITIONAL DETAIL FOR ACQUISITION OF THE LS MOLYBDENUM PROJECT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

MAY 02, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER PROVIDES ADDITIONAL DETAIL FOR ACQUISITION OF THE LS MOLYBDENUM PROJECT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA
https://preview.redd.it/dabj4k436z3b1.png?width=3500&format=png&auto=webp&s=134e4d5d769b228325b31ff935426ef6af59335f
VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / May 2, 2023 / Granite Creek Copper Ltd. (TSX.V:GCX)(OTCQB:GCXXF) ("Granite Creek" or the "Company" is pleased to provide additional detail on the acquisition of a 100% interest in the Lucky Ship molybdenum project ("LS Project") from two arm's-length vendors ("Vendors**"**), (see news release dated March 22,2023). The LS Project is located within the traditional territory of the Wet'suwet'en First Nation in central British Columbia and is in a region with a long history of mining, including the Endako molybdenum mine, the Huckleberry copper-molybdenum mine, the Equity silver mine, and others. The project is accessible year-round along a well-developed network of forestry roads, with a high-capacity power line within 50 kilometres and paved highway and rail line access within 85 kilometres.
Under the terms of the option agreement, the Company can acquire a 100% interest in the LS Project for the following consideration:
  1. Issue the Vendors 3,7500,000 common shares as follows:
  • 500,000 shares within 10 days following TSXV approval;
  • 750,000 shares on or before the 12 month anniversary of TSXV approval ("Year One");
  • 1,000,000 shares on or before the 24 month anniversary of TSXV approval ("Year Two"); and
  • 1,500,000 shares on or before the 36 month anniversary of TSXV approval ("Year Three").
  1. Keep the LS Project in good standing by completing work, filing Portable Assessment Credit or paying cash in lieu thereof of: (i) a minimum number of work credits equal to two years' assessment credit on or before the conclusion of Year One; (ii) a minimum number of work credits equal to two years' assessment credit on or before the conclusion of Year Two; and (iii) a minimum number of work credits equal to four years' assessment credit on or before the conclusion of Year Three (the "Work").
  2. On completion of the share issuances and the Work, if the total aggregate cash value of the share issuances totals less than $300,000, then the Company will make a cash payment to the Vendors equal to the difference between the aggregate cash value of the share issuances and $300,000.
On exercise of the option agreement, the Company will grant the Vendors from and after commercial production an aggregate 2.0% net smelter returns royalty on the LS Project(the "NSR Royalty"). The Company shall have the right at any time to purchase the first 1% of the NSR Royalty for $500,000 and the remaining 1% NSR Royalty for $1,000,000.
The acquisition of the LS Project is subject to approval by the TSX Venture exchange.
Option Grant
Granite Creek further announces it has granted 300,000 incentive stock options (the "Options") to a Director of the Company. The Options are exercisable for up to five years, expiring on May 2, 2028, and each Option will allow the holder to purchase one common share of the Company at a price of C$0.08 per share.
About Granite Creek Copper
Granite Creek, a member of the Metallic Group of Companies, is a Canadian exploration company focused on the exploration and development of critical minerals projects in North America. The company's projects consist of its flagship 176 square kilometer Carmacks project in the Minto copper district of Canada's Yukon Territory on trend with the high-grade Minto copper-gold mine, operated by Minto Metals Corp., the advance staged LS Molybdenum project and the copper-nickel-PGM Star project both located in central British Columbia. More information about Granite Creek Copper can be viewed on the Company's website at www.gcxcopper.com.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:
Timothy Johnson, President & CEO Telephone: 1 (604) 235-1982 Toll-Free: 1 (888) 361-3494 E-mail: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Website: www.gcxcopper.com Metallic Group: www.metallicgroup.ca Twitter: @yukoncopper
Forward-Looking Statements
This news release includes certain statements that may be deemed "forward-looking statements". All statements in this release, other than statements of historical facts including, without limitation, statements regarding potential mineralization, historic production, estimation of mineral resources, the realization of mineral resource estimates, interpretation of prior exploration and potential exploration results, the timing and success of exploration activities generally, the timing and results of future resource estimates, permitting time lines, metal prices and currency exchange rates, availability of capital, government regulation of exploration operations, environmental risks, reclamation, title, and future plans and objectives of the company are forward-looking statements that involve various risks and uncertainties. Although Granite Creek Copper believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on a number of material factors and assumptions. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include failure to obtain necessary approvals, unsuccessful exploration results, changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined, results of future resource estimates, future metal prices, availability of capital and financing on acceptable terms, general economic, market or business conditions, risks associated with regulatory changes, defects in title, availability of personnel, materials and equipment on a timely basis, accidents or equipment breakdowns, uninsured risks, delays in receiving government approvals, unanticipated environmental impacts on operations and costs to remedy same, and other exploration or other risks detailed herein and from time to time in the filings made by the companies with securities regulators. Readers are cautioned that mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Mineral exploration and development of mines is an inherently risky business. Accordingly, the actual events may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. For more information on Granite Creek Copper and the risks and challenges of their businesses, investors should review their annual filings that are available at www.sedar.com.
Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
SOURCE: Granite Creek Copper Ltd.
View source version on accesswire.com: https://www.accesswire.com/752508/Granite-Creek-Copper-Provides-Additional-Detail-for-Acquisition-of-the-LS-Molybdenum-Project-in-British-Columbia-Canada

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2023.06.04 12:03 Then_Marionberry_259 MAY 12, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER ANNOUNCES $1.35 MILLION PRIVATE PLACEMENT FINANCING

MAY 12, 2023 GCX.V GRANITE CREEK COPPER ANNOUNCES $1.35 MILLION PRIVATE PLACEMENT FINANCING
https://preview.redd.it/2o1d09i26z3b1.png?width=3500&format=png&auto=webp&s=f38151a7cde5fdbe0000d9ce0ad3812b18a62216
VANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / May 12, 2023 / Granite Creek Copper Ltd. (TSX.V:GCX)(OTCQB:GCXXF) ("Granite Creek" or the "Company") announces a non-brokered private placement financing (the "Offering") of up to $1,350,000 through the issuance of 20,000,000 common shares and 10,000,000 warrants as follows:
  • Up to 10,000,000 units at a price of $0.06 per unit, with each unit consisting of one common share of the Company and one-half of one transferable warrant, with each full warrant allowing the holder to purchase one common share of the Company at a price of $0.12 per share for thirty-six months ("Common Share Units");
  • Up to 10,000,000 flow-through units at a price of $0.075 per unit, with each unit consisting of one flow-through share of the Company and one-half of one transferable flow-through warrant, with each full flow-through warrant allowing the holder to purchase one flow-through share of the Company at a price of $0.15 per share for twenty-four months ("Flow-Through Units");
The Company also announces the completion of an initial tranche of the Offering after having received subscription agreements for 6,400,000 of the Common Share Units and 4,436,677 of the Flow-Through units for a total funds of $716,750. The Company continues to see interest in the remainder of the Offering and expects to close a second and final tranche soon.
The Offering is being conducted on a non-brokered basis and all shares and warrants issued will be subject to a statutory hold period of four months and one day from the closing of the Offering. The Company may pay finder's fees on a portion of the Offering, subject to compliance with the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange and applicable securities legislation. Closing of the Offering is subject to certain customary conditions, including, but not limited to, the receipt of all necessary regulatory approvals and the acceptance of the TSX Venture Exchange.
The proceeds from the Offering will be used for exploration and development of the Company's Carmacks Copper-Gold Project in Yukon, Canada, and for general working capital purposes. All of the gross proceeds from the issuance of the Flow-Through Shares and the flow-through shares comprising part of the Flow Through Units will be used to incur Critical Mineral Exploration Expenses ("CMEE"), and will qualify as "flow-through mining expenditures" under the Income Tax Act (Canada), which will be renounced to the purchasers of such shares, with an effective date no later than December 31, 2023, in an aggregate amount no less than the proceeds raised from the issue of the Flow-Through Shares and the flow-through shares comprising part of the Flow Through Units.
The Offering constitutes a related party transaction within the meaning of Multilateral Instrument 61-101 - Protection of Minority Security Holders in Special Transactions ("MI 61-101"), as insiders of the Company may subscribe for Common Share Units and/or Flow-Through Units in the Offering. The Company relied on the exemptions in Section 5.5(b) - Issuer Not Listed on Specified Markets from the formal valuation requirements of MI 61-101 and relied on the exemption in Section 5.7(1)(a) - Fair Market Value Not More Than 25 Per Cent of Market Capitalization from the minority shareholder approval requirements of MI 61-101. The Company did not file a material change report at least 21 days before the expected closing date of the Offering as the aforementioned insider participation had not been confirmed at that time and the Company wished to close the Offering as expeditiously as possible.
This news release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy nor shall there be any sale of any of the securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful, including any of the securities in the United States of America.The Shares have not been, and will not be, registered under the U.S. Securities Act or any U.S. state securities laws, and may not be offered or sold in the United States or to, or for the account or benefit of, U.S. persons, absent registration or any applicable exemption from the registration requirements of the U.S. Securities Act and applicable U.S. state securities laws.
About Granite Creek Copper
Granite Creek, a member of the Metallic Group of Companies, is a Canadian exploration company focused on the exploration and development of critical minerals projects in North America. The Company's projects consist of its flagship 176 square kilometer Carmacks project in the Minto copper district of Canada's Yukon Territory on trend with the high-grade Minto copper-gold mine, operated by Minto Metals Corp., and the advanced stage LS Molybdenum project and the Star copper-nickel-PGM project, both located in central British Columbia. More information about Granite Creek Copper can be viewed on the Company's website at www.gcxcopper.com.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:
Timothy Johnson, President & CEO Telephone: 1 (604) 235-1982 Toll Free: 1 (888) 361-3494 E-mail: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Website: www.gcxcopper.com Metallic Group: www.metallicgroup.ca
Forward-Looking Statements
Forward Looking Statements: This news release includes certain statements that may be deemed "forward-looking statements". All statements in this release, other than statements of historical facts including, without limitation, statements regarding potential mineralization, historic production, estimation of mineral resources, the realization of mineral resource estimates, interpretation of prior exploration and potential exploration results, the timing and success of exploration activities generally, the timing and results of future resource estimates, permitting time lines, metal prices and currency exchange rates, availability of capital, government regulation of exploration operations, environmental risks, reclamation, title, and future plans and objectives of the company are forward-looking statements that involve various risks and uncertainties. Although Granite Creek Copper believes the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on a number of material factors and assumptions. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include failure to obtain necessary approvals, unsuccessful exploration results, changes in project parameters as plans continue to be refined, results of future resource estimates, future metal prices, availability of capital and financing on acceptable terms, general economic, market or business conditions, risks associated with regulatory changes, defects in title, availability of personnel, materials and equipment on a timely basis, accidents or equipment breakdowns, uninsured risks, delays in receiving government approvals, unanticipated environmental impacts on operations and costs to remedy same, and other exploration or other risks detailed herein and from time to time in the filings made by the companies with securities regulators. Readers are cautioned that mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. Mineral exploration and development of mines is an inherently risky business. Accordingly, the actual events may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. For more information on Granite Creek Copper and the risks and challenges of their businesses, investors should review their annual filings that are available at www.sedar.com.
Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.
SOURCE: Granite Creek Copper Ltd.
View source version on accesswire.com: https://www.accesswire.com/754456/Granite-Creek-Copper-Announces-135-Million-Private-Placement-Financing

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2023.06.03 17:33 Turbulent-Swan-1485 The Erie Depot (Wellsville, NY)

The Erie Depot (Wellsville, NY)
The new Wellsville depot, which replaced the existing depot (ca. 1853) located at Central Place and Loder Streets, was constructed in 1911 for a total cost of $35,000. Being on the Erie mainline, into the 1960s, the Erie Limited and the Atlantic Express/Pacific Express passenger trains made stops there. The last train making stops was the Erie Lackawanna's Lake Cities which was discontinued in 1970.
The building was purchased last year by a group of residents who hope to transform it into an event center and railroad museum.
https://www.eveningtribune.com/story/business/2022/12/22/whats-next-for-wellsville-erie-depot-project-after-500k-award/69744357007/
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2023.06.02 21:52 ThrowAwayYourFuture8 Someone give me ONE good reason why I shouldn't delete my Indeed right now!

Hey guys,
For a little background I am a recent grad of the last 6-ish months, and I have been on a job hunt since. I have been utilizing various avenues at my disposal, such as LinkedIn, Indeed, Glassdoor, applying on their career websites, etc.,etc. During my 5th month (May) I had applied to a total of 8 jobs through Indeed and 7 resulted in disappointing rejections and the other still hasn't responded to this day, so I count that as a rejection as well.
Then one day in May, a recruiter for a position in my field of interest reached out to me (Keyword: Reached out to "me"), and told me about the position and about how I am the "perfect fit", blah blah blah yadda yadda yadda. At the time I was like "Yes! Finally! My big break! This job looks very interesting.". So I accepted the offer and then she told me a date for when we would talk on the phone.
The day comes, we have a 15 min discussion... She then tells me to fill out a formal application online and then she would send me to one of the other recruiters/interviewers in my area. I did that and then an interview date with the recruiter was set. The day comes and I wake up early, having practiced for like a week and a half for this virtual interview. The interviewer is nearly 15 mins late and then informs me that she isn't even the interviewer for my area, that she will have me set up an interview with the actual interviewer for my specific area..... sure.
An entire week passes and I wake up early again for the interview, and then this interviewer was 10 mins late too. During the interview we were connecting, she was complimenting me a lot and I was showing interest in the position and expressing my qualifications. She tells me VERBATIM: "Alright, this was a great interview! I will be in touch with you after memorial day weekend to discuss the next steps in the interview process!". Fast forward to Tuesday and I wake up to the typical "I wAnT tO tHaNk YoU fOr YoUr TiMe AnD iNtErEsT sHoWn, BuT wE hAvE dEcIdEd To PuRsUe OtHeR aPpLiCaNtS" BS email. Just stringing me along and wasting my time for a whole month.
Little do they know I was interviewing for another job at a different company at the same time through LinkedIn, and I got that job! So what I want to know is what the HELL I should keep my indeed profile for??? Seriously. Practically 9 rejections through Indeed but my FIRST attempt on LinkedIn lands me a job?? Does anyone feel the same way?
submitted by ThrowAwayYourFuture8 to jobs [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 18:13 bikingfencer Galatians: introductions through chapter 2

Galatians (https://esv.literalword.com/?q=Galatians +1+2)  
The Gospel of Paul  
Paul can be forgiven for equating the destruction of Israel with the end of the world. Everyone who loves Israel wants to save her, the controversy between the Judaizers and Paul was over how to do it.  
From The Interpreters’ Bible:  
"Introduction  
-1. Occasion and Purpose  
Conservative preachers were persuading the Galatians that faith was not enough to make sure of God’s kingdom. Besides believing that Jesus was the Messiah, one must join the Jewish nation, observe the laws and customs of Moses, and refuse to eat with the Gentiles (2:11-14, 4:10). One must have Christ and Moses, faith and law. Paul insisted that it must be either Moses or Christ. (5:2-6). [Mind you, the congregations were literally segregated at meals according to whether the male members’ foreskins were circumcised; compare with the trouble regarding the allocations between the two groups of widows reported in Acts.]  
Not content with raising doubts concerning the sufficiency of Christ, the Judaizers attacked Paul’s credentials. They said that he had not been one of the original apostles, and that he was distorting the gospel which Peter and John and James the Lord’s brother were preaching. They declared that his proposal to abandon the law of Moses was contrary to the teaching of Jesus, and they insinuated that he had taken this radical step to please men with the specious promise of cheap admission to God’s kingdom (1:10). If he were allowed to have his way, men would believe and be baptized but keep on sinning, deluding themselves that the Christian sacraments would save them. Claiming to rise above Moses and the prophets, they would debase faith into magic, liberty into license, making Christ the abettor of sin (2:17). The Judaizers were alarmed lest Paul bring down God’s wrath and delay the kingdom. They had not shared the emotion of a catastrophic conversion like Paul’s, and they found it hard to understand when he talked about a new power which overcame sin and brought righteousness better than the best that the law could produce.  
Another party attacked Paul from the opposite side. Influenced by the pagan notion that religion transcends ethics and is separable from morality, they wanted to abandon the Old Testament and its prophetic insights. They could not see how Paul’s demand to crucify one’s old sinful nature and produce the fruit of the Spirit could be anything but a new form of slavery to law (2:19-20, 5:14, 2-24). They accused him of rebuilding the old legalism, and some said that he was still preaching circumcision (2:18; 5:11). Whereas the Judaizers rejected Paul’s gospel because they believed it contrary to the teaching of the original apostles, these antilegalists felt that he was so subservient to the apostles as to endanger the freedom of the Christian Movement.  
Actually Paul had risen above both legalism and sacramentarianism ... his faith was qualitatively different from mere assent to a creed (5:6). He was living on the plateau of the Spirit, where life was so free that men needed no law to say ‘Thou shalt’ and ‘Thou shalt not’ (5:22-24). But this rarefied atmosphere was hard to breathe, and neither side could understand him. The conservatives were watching for moral lapses… and the radicals blamed him for slowing the progress of Christianity by refusing to cut it loose from Judaism and its nationalistic religious imperialism.” (Stamm, TIB 1953, vol. X pp. 430)  
Paul’s defense of his gospel and apostleship was the more difficult because he had to maintain his right to go directly to Christ without the mediation of Peter and the rest, but had to do it in such a way as not to split the church and break the continuity of his gospel with the Old Testament and the apostolic traditions about Jesus and his teaching. …  
To this end Paul gave an account of his relations with the Jerusalem church during the seventeen years that followed his conversion (1:11-2:14). Instead of going to Jerusalem he went to Arabia, presumably to preach (1:17). After a time he returned to Damascus, and only three years later did he go to see Peter. Even then he stayed only fifteen days and saw no other apostle except James the Lord’s brother (1:18-20). Then he left for Syria and Cilicia, and not until another fourteen years had passed did he visit Jerusalem again. This time it was in response to a revelation from his Lord, and not to a summons by the authorities in the Hoy City.  
Paul emphasizes that neither visit implied an admission that his gospel needed the apostolic stamp to make it valid. His purpose was to get the apostles to treat the uncircumcised Gentile Christians as their equals in the church (2:2). Making a test case of Titus, he won his point (2:3-5). The apostles agreed that a Gentile could join the church by faith without first becoming a member of the synagogue by circumcision. … They … recognize[d] that his mission to the Gentiles was on the same footing as theirs to the Jews – only he was to remember the poor (2:7-10). So far was Paul from being subordinated that when Peter came to Antioch and wavered on eating with the Gentile Christians, Paul did not hesitate to rebuke him in public (2:11-14). (Stamm, 1953, TIB vol. X pp. 430-431)  
Paul’s defense of his apostolic commission involved the question: What is the seat of authority in religion? A Jewish rabbi debating the application of the kosher laws would quote the authority of Moses and the fathers in support of his view. Jewish tradition declared that God delivered the law to Moses, and Moses to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the men of the Great Synagogue, and that they had handed it down through an unbroken rabbinical succession to the present. If Paul had been a Christian rabbi, he could have treated the Sermon on the Mount as a new law from a new Sinai, which God had delivered to Jesus, and Jesus to Peter, and Peter to Paul, and Paul to Timothy and Titus, and so on through an unbroken apostolic succession until the second coming of Christ. Instead of taking his problems directly to this Lord in prayer, he would ask, ‘What does Peter say that Jesus did and said about it?’ And if Peter or the other apostles happened not to have a pronouncement from Jesus on a given subject, they would need to apply some other saying to his by reasoning from analogy. This would turn the gospel into a system of legalism, with casuistry for its guide, making Jesus a second Moses – a prophet who lived and died in a dim and distant past and left only a written code to guide the future. Jesus would not have been the living Lord, personally present in his church in every age as the daily companion of his members. That is why Paul insisted that Christ must not be confused or combined with Moses, but must be all in all.  
The Judaizers assumed that God had revealed to Moses all of his will, and nothing but this will, for all time, changeless and unchangeable; and that death was the penalty for tampering with it. The rest of the scriptures and the oral tradition which developed and applied them were believed to be implicit in the Pentateuch as an oak in an acorn. The first duty of the teacher was to transmit the Torah exactly as he had received it from the men of old. Only then might he give his own opinion, which must never contradict but always be validated by the authority of the past. When authorities differed, the teacher must labor to reconcile them. Elaborate rules of interpretation were devised to help decide cases not covered by specific provision in the scripture. These rules made it possible to apply a changeless revelation to changing conditions, but they also presented a dilemma. The interpreter might modernize by reading into his Bible ideas that were not in the minds of its writers, or he might quench his own creative insights by fearing to go beyond what was written. Those who modernized the Old Testament were beset with the perils of incipient Gnosticism, while those who, like the Sadducees, accepted nothing but the written Torah could misuse it to obstruct social and religious progress. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 431-432)  
To submit to circumcision would have betrayed the truth of the gospel because it contradicted the principle that all is of grace and grace is for all (2:5). Perpetuated in the church of Christ, the kosher code and other Jewish customs would have destroyed the fellowship. Few things could have hurt the feelings and heaped more indignity upon the Gentiles than the spiritual snobbery of refusing to eat with them.  
The tragedy of division was proportional to the sincerity of men’s scruples. The Jews were brought up to believe that eating with Gentiles was a flagrant violation of God’s revealed will which would bring down his terrible wrath. How strongly both sides felt appears in Paul’s account of the stormy conference at Jerusalem and the angry dispute that followed it at Antioch (2:1-14). Paul claimed that refusal to eat with a Gentile brother would deny that the grace of Christ was sufficient to make him worthy of the kingdom. If all men were sons of God through Christ, there could be no classes of Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female (3:26-28). What mattered was neither circumcision not uncircumcision, but only faith and a new act of creation by the Spirit (5:6; 6”15). (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
Church unity was essential to the success of Christian missions. Friction between Aramaic and Greek-speaking Jewish Christians in Palestine had to be eliminated (Acts 6:1). The death of Stephen and a special vision to Peter were required to convince the conservatives of the propriety of admitting the Gentiles on an equality with the Jews; and even Peter was amazed that God had given them the same gift of the Spirit (Act 11: 1-18). This hesitation was potentially fatal to the spread of Christianity beyond Palestine. Many Gentiles had been attracted by the pure monotheism and high morality of Judaism but were not willing to break with their native culture by submitting to the painful initiatory rite and social stigma of being a Jew…. Had the church kept circumcision as a requirement for membership, it could not have freed itself from Jewish nationalism.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
III. Some Characteristics of Paul’s Thinking  
… “the law” of which Paul is speaking does not coincide with “law” in a twentieth-century state with representative government. His Greek word was νομος [nomos], an inadequate translation of the Hebrew “Torah,” which included much more than “law” as we use the term. [When “תורה ThORaH” appears in the text I translate it as “Instruction” – its literal definition - capitalized.] Torah was teaching on any subject concerning the will of God as revealed in the Scriptures. Since the Jews did not divide life into two compartments labeled “religious” and “secular,” their law covered both their spiritual and their civil life. Nor did Paul and his fellow Jews think in terms of “nature” and the “natural law.” They believed that everything that happened was God’s doing, directly or by his permission. The messiah was expected to restore the ancient theocracy with its power over both civil and religious affairs.  
The Gentiles too were accustomed to state regulation of religion and priestly control of civil affairs. The Greek city-states had always managed the relations of their citizens with the gods, and Alexander the Great prepared the way for religious imperialism. When he invaded Asia, he consolidated his power by the ancient Oriental idea that the ruler was a god or a son of God. His successors, in their endless wars over the fragments of his empire, adopted the same device. Posing as “savior-gods,” they liberated their victims by enslaving them. The Romans did likewise, believing that the safety of their empire depended upon correct legal relations with the gods who had founded it. … Each city had its temple dedicated to the emperor, and its patriotic priests to see that everyone burned incense before his statue. Having done this, the worshiper was free under Roman ‘tolerance’ to adopt any other legal religion. … Whether salvation was offered in the name of the ancient gods of the Orient, or of Greece, or of the emperor of Rome, or of Yahweh the theocratic king of the Jews, the favor of the deity was thought to depend upon obedience to his law.  
One did not therefore have to be a Jew to be a legalist in religion. … Since Paul’s first converts were drawn from Gentiles who had been attending the synagogues, it is easy to see how Gentile Christians could be a zealous to add Moses to Christ as the most conservative Jew.  
This is what gave the Judaizers their hold in Galatia. The rivalry between the synagogue, which was engaged in winning men to worship the God of Moses, and the church, which was preaching the God who had revealed himself in Christ Jesus, was bound to raise the issue of legalism and stir up doubts about the sufficiency of Christ.  
Gentile and Jewish Christians alike would regard Paul’s preaching of salvation apart from the merit acquired by obedience to law as a violently revolutionary doctrine. Fidelity to his declaration of religious independence from all mediating rulers and priesthoods required a spiritual maturity of which most who heard his preaching were not yet capable. … Paul’s gospel has always been in danger of being stifled by those who would treat the teachings of Jesus as laws to be enforced by a hierarchy. (Stamm, TIB 1953, X pp. 434-435)  
V. Environment of Paul’s Churches in Galatia  
The conclusion concerning the destination of the epistle does not involve the essentials of its religious message, but it does affect our understanding of certain passages, such as 3:1 and 41:12, 20.  
From the earliest times that part of the world had been swept by the cross tides of migration and struggle for empire. The third millennium found the Hittites in possession. In the second millennium the Greeks and Phrygians came spilling over from Europe, and in the first millennium the remaining power of the Hittites was swept away by Babylon and Persia. Then came the turn of the Asiatic tide into Europe, only to be swept back again by Alexander the Great. But the Greek cities with which he and his successors dotted the map of Asia were like anthills destined to be leveled by Oriental reaction.  
About 278 B.C. new turmoil came with the Gauls, who were shunted from Greece and crossed into Asia to overrun Phrygia. Gradually the Greek kings succeeded in pushing them up into the central highlands, where they established themselves in the region of Ancyra. Thus located, they constituted a perpetually disturbing element, raiding the Greek cities and furnishing soldiers now to one, and now to another of the rival kings. Then in 121 B.C. came the Romans to 'set free' Galatia by making it a part of their own Empire. By 40 B.C. there were three kingdoms, with capitals at Ancyra, Pisidian Antioch, and Iconium. Four years later Lycaonia and Galatia were given to Amyntas the king of Pisidia. He added Pamphylia and part of Cilicia to his kingdom. But he was killed in 25 B.C., and the Romans made his dominion into the province of Galatia, which was thus much larger than the territory inhabited by the Gauls. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 437-438)  
War and slavery, poverty, disease, and famine made life hard and uncertain. In religion and philosophy men were confused by this meeting of East and West. But man’s extremity was Paul’s opportunity. The soil of the centuries had been plowed and harrowed for his new, revolutionary gospel of grace and freedom.  
Not all, however, were ready for this freedom. The old religions with prestige and authority seemed safer. Most Jews preferred Moses, and among the Gentiles the hold of the Great Mother Cybele of Phrygia was not easily shaken. Paul’s converts, bringing their former ideas and customs with them, were all too ready to reshape his gospel into a combination of Christ with their ancient laws and rituals. The old religions were especially tenacious in the small villages, whose inhabitants spoke the native languages and were inaccessible to the Greek-speaking Paul. To this gravitational attraction of the indigenous cults was added the more sophisticated syncretism of the city dwellers, pulling Paul’s churches away from his gospel when the moral demands of his faith and the responsibilities of his freedom became irksome. This was the root of the trouble in Galatia. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 438)  
VI. Date and Place of Writing  
Some consider it the earliest of Paul’s extant letters and place it in 49 … In support of this date it is said that Paul, who had come from Perga by boat, was met by messengers from Galatia, who had taken the shorter route by land. They reported the disturbance which had arisen in his churches soon after his departure. He could not go back immediately to straighten things out in person, because he saw that he would have to settle the matter first in Jerusalem, whence the troublemakers had come. So he wrote a letter.  
But … [w]e do not know that the trouble in Galatia was stirred up by emissaries from the church in Jerusalem … Moreover, this solution overlooks the crux of the issue between Paul and the legalists. His contention was that neither circumcision nor the observance of any other law was the basis of salvation, but only faith in God’s grace through Christ. … On the matter of kosher customs, as on every other question, he directed men to the mind and Spirit of Christ, and not to law, either Mosaic or apostolic. That mind was a Spirit of edification which abstained voluntarily from all that defiled or offended.  
We may say that the situation [in Galatia] was different – that in Macedonia it was persecution from outside by Jews who were trying to prevent Paul’s preaching, whereas in Galatia it was trouble inside the church created by legalistic Christians who were proposing to change his teaching; that in one case the issue was justification by faith, and in the other faithfulness while waiting for the day of the Lord.  
The letter to the Romans, written during the three months in Greece mentioned in Acts 20:2-3, is our earliest commentary on Galatians. In it the relation between the law and the gospel is set forth in the perspective of Paul’s further experience. The brevity and storminess of Galatians gives way to a more complete and calmly reasoned presentation of his gospel. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 438 - 439)  
At Corinth, as in Galatia, Paul had to defend his right to be an apostle against opponents heartless enough to turn against him the cruel belief that physical illness was a sign of God’s disfavor … and they charged him with being a crafty man-pleaser … He exhorts his converts to put away childish things and grow up in faith, hope and love…  
Most childish of all were the factions incipient in Galatia, and actual in Corinth … He abandoned the kosher customs and all other artificial distinctions between Jews and Gentiles and laid the emphasis where it belonged – upon the necessity for God’s people to establish and maintain a higher morality and spiritual life… He substituted a catholic spirit for partisan loyalties ... (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 440-441)  
VII. Authorship and Attestation  
If Paul wrote anything that goes under his name, it was Galatians, Romans, and the letters to Corinth. … F.C. Baur and his followers tried to show that the letters ascribed to Paul were the product of a second-century conflict between a Judaist party and the liberals in the church, and that they were written by Paulinists who used his name and authority to promote their own ideas.  
[But] the earliest mention of the epistle by name occurs in the canon of the Gnostic heretic Marcion (ca. [approximately] 144). He put it first in his list of ten letters of Paul. A generation later the orthodox Muratorian canon (ca. 185) listed it as the sixth of Paul’s letters. … While the first explicit reference to Galatians as a letter of Paul is as late as the middle of the second century … the authors of Ephesians and the Gospel of John knew it; and Polycarp in his letter to the Philippians quoted it. Revelation, I Peter, Hebrew, I Clement, and Ignatius show acquaintance with it; and there is evidence that the writer of the Epistle of James knew Galatians, as did the authors of II Peter and the Pastoral epistle, and Justin Martyr and Athenagoras. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 441-442)  
VIII. Text and Transmission  
Although the epistle was composed neither carelessly nor hastily, the anxiety and emotional stress under which Paul dictated his cascading thoughts have produced some involved and obscure sentences … and a number of abrupt transitions… These have been a standing invitation to scribal clarification. … Paul’s debate with his critics takes the form of a diatribe, which is characterized by quotations from past or anticipated objectors and rapid-fire answers to them. Paul did not use quotation marks, and this accounts for the difficulty in 2:14-15 of deciding where his speech to Peter ends. The numerous allusions to person and places, events and teachings, with which Paul assumed his readers to be acquainted, are another source of difficulty. All theses factors operated to produce the numerous variations in the text of Galatians." (Stamm, 1953, TIB p. 442)  
From Adam Clarke’s Commentaryi :  
"The authenticity of this epistle is ably vindicated by Dr. Paley: the principal part of his arguments I shall here introduce …  
'Section I.  
As Judea was the scene of the Christian history; as the author and preachers of Christianity were Jews; as the religion itself acknowledged and was founded upon the Jewish religion, in contra distinction to every other religion, then professed among mankind: it was not to be wondered at, that some its teachers should carry it out in the world rather as a sect and modification of Judaism, than as a separate original revelation; or that they should invite their proselytes to those observances in which they lived themselves. ... I … think that those pretensions of Judaism were much more likely to be insisted upon, whilst the Jews continued a nation, than after their fall and dispersion; while Jerusalem and the temple stood, than after the destruction brought upon them by the Roman arms, the fatal cessation of the sacrifice and the priesthood, the humiliating loss of their country, and, with it, of the great rites and symbols of their institution. It should seem, therefore, from the nature of the subject and the situation of the parties, that this controversy was carried on in the interval between the preaching of Christianity to the Gentiles, and the invasion of Titus: and that our present epistle ... must be referred to the same period.  
… the epistle supposes that certain designing adherents of the Jewish law had crept into the churches of Galatia; and had been endeavouring, and but too successfully, to persuade the Galatic converts, that they had been taught the new religion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder of their church himself possessed only an inferior and disputed commission, the seat of truth and authority being in the apostles and elders of Jerusalem; moreover, that whatever he might profess among them, he had himself, at other times and in other places, given way to the doctrine of circumcision. The epistle is unintelligible without supposing all this. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 361)  
Section VII.  
This epistle goes farther than any of St. Paul’s epistles; for it avows in direct terms the supersession of the Jewish law, as an instrument of salvation, even to the Jews themselves. Not only were the Gentiles exempt from its authority, but even the Jews were no longer either to place any dependency upon it, or consider themselves as subject to it on a religious account. "Before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto faith which should afterward be revealed: wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but, after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." (Chap. [chapter] iii. 23-25) This was undoubtedly spoken of Jews, and to Jews. … What then should be the conduct of a Jew (for such St. Paul was) who preached this doctrine? To be consistent with himself, either he would no longer comply, in his own person, with the directions of the law; or, if he did comply, it would be some other reason than any confidence which he placed in its efficacy, as a religious institution. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II pp. 366-367)  
Preface  
The religion of the ancient Galatae was extremely corrupt and superstitious: and they are said to have worshipped the mother of the gods, under the name of Agdistis; and to have offered human sacrifices of the prisoners they took in war.  
They are mentioned by historians as a tall and valiant people, who went nearly naked; and used for arms only a sword and buckler. The impetuosity of their attack is stated to have been irresistible…’” (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 369)  
From The New Jerome Biblical Commentaryii  
"Introduction  
The Galatai, originally an Indo-Aryan tribe of Asia, were related to the Celts or Gauls (“who in their own language are called Keltae, but in ours Galli”) ... About 279 BC some of them invaded the lower Danube area and Macedonia, descending even into the Gk [Greek] peninsula. After they were stopped by the Aetolians in 278, a remnant fled across the Hellespont into Asia Minor …  
Occasion and Purpose  
… He … stoutly maintained that the gospel he had preached, without the observance of the Mosaic practices, was the only correct view of Christianity … Gal [Galatians] thus became the first expose` of Paul’s teaching about justification by grace through faith apart from deeds prescribed by the law; it is Paul’s manifesto about Christian freedom.  
... Who were the agitators in Galatia? … they are best identified as Jewish Christians of Palestine, of an even stricter Jewish background than Peter, Paul, or James, or even of the ‘false brethren' (2:4) of Jerusalem, whom Paul had encountered there. (The account in Acts 15:5 would identify the latter as ‘believers who had belonged to the sect of the Pharisees.’) … The agitators in Galatia were Judaizers, who insisted not on the observance of the whole Mosaic law, but at least on circumcision and the observance of some other Jewish practices. Paul for this reason warned the Gentile Christians of Galatia that their fascination with ‘circumcision’ would oblige them to keep ‘the whole law’ (5:3). The agitators may have been syncretists of some sort: Christians of Jewish perhaps Essene, background, affected by some Anatolian influences. … (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC pp. 780-781)   END NOTES
i The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present Authorized Version. Including the marginal readings and parallel texts. With a Commentary and Critical Notes. Designed as a help to a better understanding of the sacred writings. By Adam Clarke, LL.D. F.S.A. M.R.I.A. With a complete alphabetical index. Royal Octavo Stereotype Edition. Vol. II. [Vol. VI together with the O.T.] New York, Published by J. Emory and B. Waugh, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the conference office, 13 Crosby-Street. J. Collord, Printer. 1831.  
ii The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Union Theological Seminary, New York; NY, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J. (emeritus) Catholic University of America, Washington, DC; Roland E. Murphy, O.Carm. (emeritus) The Divinity School, Duke University, Durham, NC, with a foreword by His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J.; Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990  
  Chapter One  
…  
Tiding of [בשורת, BeSOoRahTh, Gospel] one
[verses 6-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
How [כיצד, KaYTsahD] was [היה, HahYaH] Shah`OoL [“Lender”, Saul, Paul] to become a Sent Forth [Apostle]
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
…  
Chapter Two  
Sending forth of Shah’OoL required upon hands of the Sent Forth
[verses 1-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
The YeHOo-DeeYM [“YHVH-ites”, Judeans] and the nations, righteous from inside belief
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
...
-16. And since [וכיון, VeKhayVahN] that know, we, that [כי, KeeY] the ’ahDahM [“man”, Adam] is not made righteous in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction [Torah, law],
rather in belief of the Anointed [המשיח, HahMahSheeY-ahH, the Messiah, the Christ] YayShOo`ah [“Savior”, Jesus],
believe, also we, in Anointed YayShOo`ah,
to sake we are made righteous from inside belief in Anointed,
and not in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction,
that yes, in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction is not made righteous any [כל, KahL] flesh.  
“As a Pharisee, Paul had been taught that works of law were deeds done in obedience to the Torah, contrasted with things done according to one’s own will. The object of this obedience was to render oneself acceptable to God – to ‘justify’ oneself. Having found this impossible, Paul reinforced the evidence from his own experience by Ps. [Psalm] 143:2, where the sinner prays God not to enter into judgment with him because in God’s sight no man living is righteous. Into this passage from the LXX [The Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] Paul inserted ‘by works of law,’ and wrote σαρξ [sarx], ‘flesh,’ instead of ζων [zon], ‘one living.’ This quotation warns us against setting Paul’s salvation by grace over against Judaism in such a way as to obscure the fact that the Jews depended also upon God’s lovingkindness and tender mercies (I Kings 8:46; Job 10:14-15; 14:3-4; Prov. [Proverbs] 20:9; Eccl. [Ecclesiasticus] 7:20; Mal. [Malachi] 3:2; Dan. [Daniel] 9:18).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
Justified is a metaphor from the law court. The Greek verb is δικαιοω [dikaioo], the noun δικαιοσουνη [dikaiosoune’], the adjective δικαιος [dikaios]. The common root is δικ [dik] as in δεικνυμι [deiknumi], ‘point out,’ ‘show.’ The words formed on this root point to a norm or standard to which persons and things must conform in order to be ‘right.’ The English ‘right’ expresses the same idea, being derived from the Anglo-Saxon ‘richt,’ which means ‘straight,’ not crooked, ‘upright,’ not oblique. The verb δικαιοω means ‘I think it right.’ A man is δικαιος, ‘right’ when he conforms to the standard of acceptable character and conduct, and δικαιοσυνη, ‘righteousness,’ ‘justice,’ is the state or quality of this conformity. In the LXX these Greek words translate a group of Hebrew words formed on the root צדק [TsehDehQ], and in Latin the corresponding terms are justifico, justus, and justificatio. In all four languages the common idea is the norm by which persons and things are to be tested. Thus in Hebrew a wall is ‘righteous’ when it conforms to the plumb line, a man when he does God’s will.  
From earliest boyhood Paul had tried to be righteous. But there came a terrible day when he said ‘I will covet’ to the law’s ‘Thou shalt not,’ and in that defiance he had fallen out of right relation to God and into the ‘wrath,’ where he ‘died’ spiritually… Thenceforth all his efforts, however strenuous, to get ‘right’ with God were thwarted by the weakness of his sinful human nature, the ‘flesh’ (σαρξ) [sarx]. That experience of futility led him to say that a man is not justified by works ‘of law.’” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
[Actually Paul changed his point of view as a result of his encounter with Jesus on the road to Damascus, not as a result of intellectual contemplation. His many failures hitherto had not led him to this conclusion. The description of Paul in the preceding paragraph is a fiction.]  
“In the eyes of the psalmists and rabbis this was blasphemously revolutionary. Resting on God’s covenant with Abraham, they held it axiomatic that the ‘righteous’ man who had conscientiously done his part deserved to be vindicated before a wicked world; otherwise God could not be righteous. … In Judaism God was thought of as forgiving only repentant sinners who followed their repentance with right living …  
The theological expression for this conception of salvation is ‘justification by faith.’ Unfortunately this Latin word does not make plain Paul’s underlying religious experience, which was a change of status through faith from a wrong to a ‘right’ relationship with God… It conceals from the English reader the fact that the Greek word also means ‘righteousness.’ … (observe the ASV [American Standard Version] mg. [marginal note], ‘accounted righteous’).  
But ‘reckoned’ and ‘accounted’ expose Paul’s thought to misinterpretation by suggesting a legal fiction which God adopted to escape the contradiction between his acceptance of sinners and his own righteousness and justice.  
On the other hand, Paul’s term, in the passive, cannot be translated by ‘made righteous’ without misrepresenting him. In baptism he had ‘died with Christ’ to sin. By this definition the Christian is a person who does not sin! And yet Paul does not say that he is sinless, but that he must not sin. … This laid him open to a charge of self contradiction; sinless and yet not sinless, righteous and unrighteous, just and unjust at the same time. Some interpreters have labeled it ‘paradox,’ but such a superficial dismissal of the problem is religiously barren and worse than useless.  
The extreme difficulty of understanding Paul on this matter has led to a distinction between ‘justification’ and ‘sanctification,’ which obscures Paul’s urgency to be now, at this very moment, what God in accepting him says he is: a righteous man in Christ Jesus. Justification is reduced to a forensic declaration by which God acquits and accepts the guilty criminal, and sanctification is viewed as a leisurely process of becoming the kind of person posited by that declaration. This makes perfection seem far less urgent than Paul conceived it, and permits the spiritual inertia of human nature to continue its habit of separating religion from ethics. To prevent this misunderstanding it is necessary to keep in mind the root meaning of ‘righteousness’ in δικαιοω and its cognates.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 484-485)  
-19. I died according to [לגבי, LeGahBaY] the Instruction, because of [בגלל, BeeGLahL] the Instruction, in order [כדי, KeDaY] that I will live to God.  
“… The Pharisees taught that the Torah was the life element of the Jews; all who obeyed would live, those who did not would die (Deut. [Deuteronomy] 30:11-20).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 488-489)  
-20. With the Anointed I was crucified, and no more I live, rather the Anointed lives in me.
The life that I live now in flesh, I live them in the belief of Son [of] the Gods that loved me and delivered up [ומסר, OoMahÇahR] himself in my behalf [בעדי, Bah`ahDeeY].  
“The danger was that Paul’s Gentile converts might claim freedom in Christ but reject the cross-bearing that made it possible. Lacking the momentum of moral discipline under Moses, which prepared Paul to make right use of his freedom, they might imagine that his dying and rising with Christ was a magical way of immortalizing themselves by sacramental absorption of Christ’s divine substance in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. The church has always been tempted to take Paul’s crucifixion with Christ in a symbolic sense only, or as an experience at baptism which is sacramentally automatic. It has also been tempted to reduce Paul’s ‘faith’ to bare belief and assent to his doctrine, and to equate his ‘righteousness’ with a fictitious imputation by a Judge made lenient by Christ’s death.  
Against these caricatures of ‘justification by faith,’ Paul’s whole life and all his letters are a standing protest. He never allows us to forget that to be crucified with Christ is to share the motives, the purposes, and the way of life that led Jesus to the Cross; to take up vicariously the burden of the sins of others, forgiving and loving instead of condemning them; to make oneself the slave of every man; to create unity and harmony by reconciling man to God and man to his fellow men; to pray without ceasing ‘Thy will be done’; to consign one’s life to God, walking by faith where one cannot see; and finally to leave this earth with the prayer ‘Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.’  
… When Christ the Spirit came to live in Paul … Paul was guided at each step, in each new circumstance, to answer for himself the question: What would Jesus have me do? And the answer was always this: Rely solely on God’s grace through Christ, count others better than yourself, and make yourself everybody’s slave after the manner of the Son of God who loved you and gave himself for you.  
… The phrase εν σαρκι [en sarki] … means, lit. [literally], in the flesh. Someday – Paul hoped it would be soon – this would be changed into a body like that of the risen Christ, which belonged to the realm of Spirit.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 490-493)  
Christ lives in me: The perfection of Christian life is expressed here … it reshapes human beings anew, supplying them with a new principle of activity on the ontological1 level of their very beings.” (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC p. 785)  
-21. I do not nullify [מבטל, MeBahTayL] [את, ’ehTh (indicator of direct object; no English equivalent)] mercy [of] Gods;
is not if [it] is possible to become righteous upon hand of the Instruction, see, that the Anointed died to nothing [לשוא, LahShahVe’]?  
“It is not I, he says, who am nullifying the grace of God by abandoning the law which is his grace-gift to Israel, but those who insist on retaining that law in addition to the grace which he has now manifested in Christ.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 495)
  Footnotes   1 Ontological - relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being  
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2023.06.02 16:14 drcareimplantc Trụ implant brat

Trụ implant brat
​​​​​​​Trụ Implant Brat là dòng trụ có xuất xứ từ Pháp. Dòng trụ có thiết kế đặc biệt có thể cấy ghép ngay cả khi mật độ xương hàm không đạt tiêu chuẩn.

Xuất xứ trụ Implant Brat?

Trụ Implant Brat(tên chính xác là Implant Express) có là trụ Implant Pháp, thuộc hãng công nghệ tiên tiến về xương - Implant Brat, được thành lập vào năm 1995.
https://preview.redd.it/1ly6g38r4m3b1.jpg?width=510&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=61889d793615d5cc8a0b369c94c2e9955ec2c22b
Theo đánh giá của nhiều chuyên gia thì đây là một trong những dòng trụ Implant hàng đầu tại Pháp. Loại trụ này được nhiều Bác sĩ ưa chuộng và được phân phối tại rất nhiều quốc gia trên khắp thế giới.

Cấu tạo 3 phần trụ Implant Brat Pháp

Trụ Implant Brat với thiết kế đặc biệt được nhiều Bác sĩ nha khoa đánh giá cao và bệnh nhân ưu ái sử dụng trong việc cấy ghép Implant.

1. Phần cổ trụ Implant

Công nghệ xử lý bề mặt nhám phun cát (µ blasting) tăng tính chắc chắn của trụ. Trụ Implant có khả năng tạo ra lực phân bổ đồng đều và hài hòa với giải phẫu xương, giúp ca cấy ghép diễn ra dễ dàng và đạt được hiệu quả tốt nhất.
Xem thêm:Trụ Implant C-Tech - Tìm hiểu xuất xứ, ưu điểm và giá cả Dr. Care
Kết nối Hex chuẩn lục giác sâu bên trong 3.5 mmD cho mọi đường kính, hơi chóp nhẹ tạo sự dễ dàng trong khâu phục hình, mang lại sự khít xác vững chắc giữa trụ Implant và khớp nối Abutment.
https://preview.redd.it/0m2uxbxu4m3b1.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2d96f132785c6d51d51e1705bdac7bf891cc13ef

2. Phần thân trụ Implant

Thân trụ được thiết kế ren xoắn rất đặc biệt, tăng độ tích hợp giữa trụ và xương hàm ngay cả khi mật độ xương không đạt tiêu chuẩn.

3. Phần đáy trụ Implant

Phần đế bằng phẳng giúp trụ Implant cắm chắc chắn và bền vững vào xương hàm, hạn chế tối đa ảnh hưởng xấu trong trường hợp có ghép xương.
Dr. Care Implant Clinic
Địa chỉ: P3-0.SH08, Tòa nhà Park 3, Khu đô thị Vinhomes Central Park 208 Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, Phường 22, Quận Bình Thạnh, Tp HCM
Phone: 0909478910
Website: https://drcareimplant.com/
#tru_implant_brat
#implant_brat
Nguồn tham khảo: https://drcareimplant.com/tru-implant-brat-tim-hieu-xuat-xu-uu-diem-va-gia-ca-644
MAP: https://www.google.com/maps?cid=691390527449622009
Thông tin: https://www.google.com/search?q=dr.+care+implant+clinic&kponly=&kgmid=/g/11g0gb08tb
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2023.06.02 14:24 Virtual_Tadpole9821 A BL fan's guide to visiting Thailand

There's been much talk about BL's potential as a driver of tourism. And it's evident, as some of you have shared your stories here in this sub, while others have asked for help planning upcoming trips. But there still appears to be a lack of easily accessible information for people visiting Thailand for the BL. Here's an attempt to remedy that, with this guide to visiting Thailand for BL fans. I've taken the liberty to incorporate suggestions from several previous threads here, as well as various other sources, so thank you to everyone who's contributed to the discussion.

First things first

This will only touch on things specifically of interest to BL fans. For the other aspects of your trip, including most basic planning stuff, please consult the usual travel resources.
That said, firstly you'll want to consider the purpose of your trip, and how much of it you want to dedicate to BL stuff. Do you just want a regular vacation, with a side stop for some merch, or are you here to relive the all the scenes from your favourite BLs? It's very possible to come up with a weeks-long itinerary of nothing but BL locations, and you could spend as much time mall-hopping to catch artist appearances, but Thailand also has a lot of other things to experience, whether you want to stick to the major attractions or go off the beaten track. It's all up to you.
Also, this probably goes without saying, but if you want to attend a specific event, be sure to plan around it and make travel arrangements accordingly. Concerts and fan meetings usually have tickets go on sale a couple of months in advance at most, so you'll want to have flexible options if you book your travel and accommodation before then.

Destinations

Most of the BL-related things you can do will be concentrated in Bangkok, so it's where this guide will be mainly focused, but there are also several provincial locations that have featured in BL, especially Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai in the north and Phuket in the south, all of which are major tourist destinations in their own right. Series have also spent time at plenty of beaches and resorts (particularly around Hua Hin and several towns in Chonburi province) as well as other popular excursions, most of which are short trips from Bangkok. Further out are the island resorts of Koh Samet, Koh Tao and Koh Lanta. The north-east Isan locations are rather off the tourist trail, but could well be worth the experience if that's your style of travel.
If you follow actors outside of their series, many of them have hosted or guested in variety/travel shows, which could also serve as inspiration for your travel plans.

Getting immersed

Arriving in Bangkok, one of the first things you'll notice as a fan of Thai BL (or Thai dramas in general) is that you're surrounded by familiar faces everywhere, on banners and billboards and the back of tuk-tuks. Although BL actors aren't that well known among the general public (a surprise to some), the better known ones have a ton of brand endorsements and appear in ads for all sorts of products. Even if you're not planning your trip around BL, spotting actors you know in ads and fan projects can be an entertaining pastime.
Head into a 7-Eleven and you're pretty much guaranteed to see faces you recognize, perhaps on products you're already familiar with from all those series sponsorships and product placements. If the advertising worked and you're dying to know what that bottled green tea or that seaweed snack tastes like, this is your chance to give them a try.
Speaking of tasting, you'll probably be sampling plenty of Thai food while here, so why not include some of the food and drink items from the series you remember, be it som tam from What Zabb Man, the traditional desserts from UWMA, or the famous pink milk, known here as nom yen?
Meanwhile, if taking public transport, spend some time watching the people and see how BL imitates real life. Do you recognize the colours of the school uniforms? Or the university students in their white shirts and black slacks? You might even come across some engineering students in their workshop overshirts.
If you miss hearing the Raikantopeni announcement at the beginning of shows, be sure to turn on the TV to catch it as they air live. Be aware though that following shows in Thailand will be more difficult than at home, as they won't have subtitles on TV or on most local streaming services, so you'll likely need a VPN. On the other hand, if you have Netflix, you'll finally be able to catch all those shows that are geo-blocked elsewhere.

Merch stores & fan hangouts

This might be a bit of a letdown, but apart from GMMTV's, there aren't really any physical stores for official merchandise, or unofficial items for that matter. But since you'll be in the country, you could check with your accommodation to see if they can arrange to accept local package deliveries for you, so you can place some online orders and avoid the international shipping fees. Official merch is usually sold via direct order from the publishers/producers. Small online retailers act as resellers or carry unofficial items, while second-hand items are mostly traded through Twitter and Facebook groups. Most of this will be hard to navigate for non-Thais, so unless you know someone you might want to stick to the official stores. Be sure to check the processing and delivery times - this might be tricky (and won't work with pre-orders, only in-stock items).
GMMTV's shop is not a traditional giftshop as one might assume, but more like a kiosk at their office on the 30th floor of the GMM Grammy Place building - there's just a small product display and a cashier window. Apart from buying products, there's a good chance of running into some actors when visiting, though you're not allowed to linger and there's nowhere to hang out apart from some cafés on the ground floor. You will likely spot some fan-project displays (as mentioned above) outside and in the building, and the cafés will often have cup-sleeve giveaways by fans. Here's a very helpful guide by u/snuffles005: How to visit the GMMTV building and shop
Elsewhere, there's Wab Cafe' and Friends, by the Studio Wabi Sabi people. It's a café, so you'll be buying drinks there rather than merch, but it's very much a space created for fans, and there will often be something going on like fan projects and giveaways, or maybe mini-events with actors making an appearance. It's in RCA, Bangkok's main clubbing neighbourhood (and home to studios where many productions hold their workshops), which takes a bit of an effort to get to, but it's also probably the most dedicated hangout space for BL fans there is.
From Star Hunter, there's Hunter Village, a studio space (mostly used for dance classes) in MBK Center, one of Bangkok's most popular malls. It's a mostly open space, so you'll be able to see if there's someone coming in or something going on, but I'm not sure if it's really somewhere you can hang out at.
Other than that, quite a few actors have their own cafés or some other business, which you might want to visit to support them directly. Clothing and fashion items (perhaps from brands with your faves as presenters) may also be something you'd want to go shopping for.
For manga and anime (including BL/yaoi) and related merch, there's an Animate store (the specialty chain from Japan), also at MBK Center. In addition to imported works, they also have an extensive Thai section, with both translated and original works.
If you want to observe the Thai novel scene, just walk into any major Thai book store, where you'll likely find rows, maybe entire shelves, of BL novels, prominently displayed - BL has very much gone mainstream in the Thai publishing industry. You'll also find glossy magazines featuring actor photoshoots here. You'll have less luck finding English translations, though, as most translated works are e-book only. For English-language (and Japanese) books in general, your best bet is Books Kinokuniya. They do have Japanese and Chinese translations of some Thai BL novels, as well as the English manga versions of SOTUS and Manner of Death, at international prices.

Catching events

Seeing actors up close (or at a distance) in real life will probably be the BL highlight of your trip for many of you. And unless you're ultra specific as to whom you want to see, there are ample opportunities to catch these actor appearances.
The biggest experiences will of course be the major events - concerts, fan meetings, and the like - that you'll have to buy tickets for. As mentioned above, you'll have to plan around them if you want to attend (which also limits how long you can plan in advance), and make sure to actually get those tickets. They're usually announced very publicly, so it's hard to miss them if you follow the usual news update channels. If you're around when one takes place but can't attend, it can still be worth dropping by if you want to get hold of the merch or just check out the crowds.
For more casual fans, you'll still have plenty of chance to see actors at smaller events, as there's pretty much always something happening somewhere, though there might not be much choice on who you get to see. These events vary a lot in scale, and can be anything from product launches to movie premieres. Most artist's agencies will announce them on their social media channels, usually on a weekly basis, and fan accounts may help share and/or translate them. You'll have to follow them to keep updated.
Most of these events will be held in Bangkok's plethora of malls. The biggest ones are mostly lined along the BTS Skytrain's Sukhumvit Line, so if you plan to do a lot of mall-hopping, whether for events or just shopping, consider getting accommodation with easy access to the BTS for convenience. Here's a great post by u/BumblingWombat that describes the experience in detail: What it's like to go to BL events in Thailand (Oh yeah, there are also top-spender events, which I won't go into, as I don't know anything about them. Those who're aiming for them probably won't need this guide anyway.)
Aside from these specific events, there are also annual book fairs that are partially or directly BL-related, where actors from various agencies may make appearances. The mainstream National Book Fair and Book Expo are usually held at the beginning of April and some time in October. Since last year, BL novels and publishers have had a large presence there, and GMMTV actors made daily appearances with fan gatherings in the car park. There are also smaller book fairs directly focusing on BL: Y Book Fair in July, and International Novel Festival at the end of November. They also feature actor appearances, but can also be worth seeing just for the atmosphere if you're interested in experiencing the literary BL scene here.
On the other hand, to experience more of the community side of the fandom, you might want to check out some fan-held events, such as the birthday projects that fan clubs often do, which may be in the form of café galleries or mini-gatherings. Info will mostly be on Twitter, though it may not be readily translated.

Visiting filming locations

If BL inspired you to make the trip to Thailand, no doubt you'd be interested in visiting some of the filming locations yourself. But while some of them are traditional tourist attractions in their own right, most aren't normally on the radar for general visitors, so it'll take a bit of investment (in time and travel) to include them in your trip.
If there's a single most iconic location to recommend, it must be the Rama VIII Bridge over the Chao Phraya River, which shows up in more BLs than anywhere else. It's not really a tourist attraction, but it's a major landmark of modern Bangkok that everyone knows, and isn't too hard to get to if you want. It's a bit of a walk (some 15 minutes, or just take a tuk-tuk) from either the Phra Athit or Thewet Pier if you're coming from the main riverside attractions and use the Chao Phraya Express (or Tourist) Boat. If you're into financial history, the Bank of Thailand Learning Center and museum is right next to the bridge. Otherwise, Suan Luang Rama VIII Park by its base is also nice, and also a filming location. The bridge itself is most photogenic at night, but make sure you have transport back if you stay late. Consider one of those dinner cruises if you want to experience it from the same angles as KinnPorsche and Cutie Pie.
For other locations, you'll need to do some research. If there's a specific series you want to follow, try searching to see if someone has already compiled a list of locations, which is likely the case for the more popular series. Most info will be on Tumblr or Twitter.
Filming locations may be public places, shops and businesses, private establishments, or purpose-built or converted studios, so remember to think of their ability to welcome visitors. Dress appropriately for the venue, take care to respect their regular functions, and be considerate to other people. Some of the most familiar locations are university campuses, and the grounds will generally be open to the public, but they're not usually equipped to deal with large numbers of visitors. So if you do visit, have fun reliving those memorable scenes but make sure not to disturb the real students who are there for class. Meanwhile, cafés, bars and restaurants would surely welcome your patronage, but please do not snoop around private offices or people's homes. It all boils down to following common sense, really.
A lot of the locations will be quite spread out and some distance away from downtown, so you'll have to plan carefully if you want to hit more than a few. You might want to hire transport for the day, but also take the traffic into consideration.
If you've always wanted to sleep in the same room that your favourite characters lived in (or at least an identical one), you might be in luck. Some of the apartment locations may have rooms available for daily renting, so check with them. As above, though, their location can be rather inconvenient transport-wise. On the other hand, you might want to opt for the hotels and resorts that featured as locations, which will be better equipped with tourist facilities.
For houses specifically, I have a post on The houses of Thai BL. Most of them are private property rented out as studios, but some will be happy to accept visitors (for a fee) on their off days. Contact their management to see if a something can be arranged. Or if you're serious about it and ready to pay, just rent the place at full price for your own personal photoshoot. If you try it either way, do let us know how it turns out. On the other hand, Wawa House (To Sir, With Love) has a café for visitors, Slōlē (Golden Blood, Bite Me, Enchanté, The Tuxedo, The Eclipse) is a real-life café when not filming, and Red Brick Kitchen (Not Me, KinnPorsche, War of Y) features a chef's table dining experience (reservations only, 4 persons minimum).
If you're just looking for some usual attractions that happen to have BL appearances as a bonus, here are a few (very non-exhaustive) suggestions for Greater Bangkok:
While Bangkok's malls are very much major attractions by themselves, I didn't include them as their appearances are quite too numerous to list.
Outside of Bangkok, each series will mostly feature locations relatively near each other (except Cupid's Last Wish, which went all over the country), so I'll just list the series by destination without going into each location's detail.

Further resources & suggestions

The Let's Talk BL podcast hosts talked about their experience in Thailand last year, covering a lot of the above points over several episodes at the beginning of season 3. Be sure to check them out if you want all the details, especially S3 EP3: Tips & Tricks for the perfect BL experience in Bangkok. Some of their main tips that I didn't mention above are not to overstretch yourself trying to go to everything, and to use a map to plan your days.
Colourme-feral on Tumblr has an incredible Google Map that plots locations from several series, and more in their blog, which a lot of the above is sourced from. For Bad Buddy specifically, Telomeke-bbs on Tumblr has a series of posts that analyse the locations at an insane level of detail.
I'm sure I haven't covered nearly everything in this post, so please feel free to add your suggestions in the comments. (I'll try to expand the locations list as I get around to digging for more series.) If you have questions or need help identifying a specific location, feel free to ask! (Though no guarantees there.)
For full disclosure, I'm receiving no compensation whatsoever for writing this. Any biases or omissions are purely unintentional.
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2023.06.02 05:37 TheIncomprehensible Gameplay Thoughts and Feedback May 2023

About a month ago I gave some early gameplay impressions about the full release of Omega Strikers as a sort of follow-up to my beta impressions of Omega Strikers, and wanted to provide more avenues for discussion for a few reasons:
  1. Players (including myself) have learned a lot about how the new mechanics work, which has shifted some of my opinions about the new mechanics and I've learned how to use the mechanics and have played with others that have learned how to use the mechanics. As a result, some of my opinions about those subjects are now outdated, other points I can elaborate on, and even more points are things that were present before but not things I recognized after my previous post.
  2. Some issues I had during the beta I could not assess properly during the short time frame between the full launch and the time I posted my previous feedback, and I have a lot more time to assess how the current state of the game affects these beta problems.
  3. New content got released, and I can give feedback and opinions on those topics.
Without further ado, I would like to share with you some of my opinions on the state of the game as of May 2023.

Beta Problems Revisited

There were a few issues I had during the beta that I couldn't accurately address during my previous post due to not having enough experience with the game in that stage, and wanted to do a quick rundown of those changes here:
Teamplay I believed was a big problem during the beta because there weren't numerical rewards for playing with your team and it was very easy to prevent the goalie from playing the game from the start with the right setup. There still aren't numerical rewards for teamplay, but there are other changes in the right direction: participation awards for dealing a lot of damage are gone from the MVP screen, and the inability to build entirely for damage from the start makes it extremely difficult to bully the goalie and prevent them from playing the game. There still aren't incentives for playing as a team, but there are much fewer mechanics discouraging players from playing selfishly, and it's also much harder to just carry a game.
At the time I wrote my previous post I had not played ranked, and therefore hadn't seen the new character ban system. The benefit of the new system is that it allows you to adapt your character ban to characters your teammates don't intend on playing and/or characters that the stage and/or awakenings system benefit greatly. There's still a problem where it doesn't take a majority vote when there is a slight majority, but that was a problem with the old system that's still a problem with the new system.

Matchmaking

I believe matchmaking is a big problem right now in basically all formats, although it's slightly different for competitive.
In unranked modes, the lack of skill-based matchmaking makes finding a good match with players of your skill level an absolute chore to find. This is particularly problematic for new players, who go into an unranked match, get matched with 5 other veterans, and not get to play the game, as well as experienced players that get matched with these new players that are effectively playing down a player. Realistically, I don't think it would be a problem if the teams were at least partially balanced in spite of the skill gap, but that's not happening: I had a game where I ended the game twice the combined levels of my teammates, and I couldn't blame either of them because it was very obvious that they were new.
In ranked, there's a slightly different problem. It does do a decent job of matching players of similar skill levels together to a reasonable degree, but it also has a slightly warped idea of a player's skill level. There's a huge skill gap in low plat because it's filled with a mix of mediocre players that climbed just by understanding the game slightly better than the average player and abusing the low-ranked elo gains and mediocre players that understand the game well but either aren't skilled enough to make the higher tiers or have dumb gameplay problems like constantly running into the black hole on Atlas' Lab.

Match Length and Pacing

I still don't like the poor pacing provided by the awakening draft, but I think match length is mostly in a good spot now. Once you learn how to use the new mechanics the games feel just as intense as games during the beta did while also feeling purposeful in a way that matches during the beta didn't.
My only complaint with match length is the timer system. Timers should be there to promote interaction between both teams in the same way real-world sports use their timers to drive interactions between both teams, but right now the 1-minute round timers don't encourage interaction, only make interactions more chaotic when a single round goes on for a while. In addition, I feel like there's a large gap in the length of rounds on different stages, with some stages consistently contributing to longer games than the others, and the current overtime system doesn't help with that. Making timers per-set instead of per-round would fix these issues: the threat of losing a set to time helps drive interaction and reigns in the length of games on stages that consistently go into overtime with the current per-round system.

Energy

During my previous post I couldn't provide an accurate assessment of energy because no one I played with (including myself) had a good grasp of the mechanic. Now that I've played with it a lot more it feels like a really interesting mechanic with so many uses. Evade makes it a lot harder to score KOs against players of your skill level and offers a level of counterplay against extremely large abilities that you otherwise may not be able to avoid. Meanwhile, core burst is an incredibly powerful yet versatile tool that's usable on defense and all forms of offense. It feels really good when you use it to secure a goal or KO but feels even better when you get the perfect read on your opponent's core flip and get a sick play out of it. It also heavily rewards interaction with players in a way that no other mechanic has before, since you can now choose to save your evade for core flip at the expense of your stagger bar or can choose to use your energy to save parts of your stagger bar, which produces a really interesting dynamic between those two resources.

Awakenings

Now that we've had awakenings for a while I think the system is generally fun with a few problems. Balance is out of the scope of this post, but there are still gameplay issues that should be resolved:

Gear

My main complaint with gear is that it's a proactive customization option that's considerably less deep than the system it replaced, which I covered in my previous post. My other complaint with gear is that whether or not the gear interacts with awakenings is inconsistent because Strike Shot scales with projectile range but Siphoning Wand doesn't scale with debuff duration and both Magnetic Soles and Slick Kicks don't scale with buff duration or haste potency. Either Strike Shot shouldn't scale with projectile range or Strike Shot shouldn't be the only gear that scales with awakenings.

Stages

Since the my previous post, I've personally developed a greater understanding of what I think makes a good or bad stage, as well as there being 2 more stages I can form opinions on. I think there are 3 ideas that I think make a stage great:
  1. Dynamic gameplay, where the moment-to-moment gameplay changes based on the stage's current features, whether it's the player objectives changing from moment to moment, the stage hazards affecting the gameplay differently throughout the match, or the stage's unique layout changing its gameplay compared to other stages.
  2. Promotion of teamplay, where coordinating with your teammate(s) is more heavily rewarded than playing by yourself.
  3. A sliding scale of extremes, where an extreme case of one of the previous 2 ideas can compensate for limitations in the other.
With these ideas, I can share better opinions on which stages I like and why I like them.
In spite of constantly running into the black hole on accident Atlas' Lab is my personal favorite map. The black hole is far and away the most dynamic stage hazard, leaving effectively 2 modes of the stage that it flips through constantly but predictably. In addition, some stages have hazards that inhibit teamplay, but Atlas' Lab promotes it because the gravitational pull around the black hole offers new and interesting passing lanes that prevents the problem other stages with centralized hazards have where the centralized obstruction interferes with passes. The goal barriers are decentralized enough to get goalies to move out and away from the center of the goalie box and to get forwards from simply aiming for the goal for the full duration of the match. In addition, getting both goal barriers in a single play is both more satisfying and more consistent on this map than any other. My only complaint is that there isn't a visual for the black hole coming back up.
Night Market I think has the overall most dynamic gameplay experience. The walls limit passing angles, but I think the speed boost makes up for it by making it easy for players to travel through the center to reposition for a pass. However, I think the dynamism of the gameplay experience rests heavily on the interaction between the barriers and the wall. On any other map, these barriers would be the easiest to break because they're large and stretch to the edge of the stage, but the walls make it difficult to pass to the other side and make it extremely practical for the goalie to defend both. However, Night Market's barriers have a unique feature: when one barrier goes down, I think it becomes easier to take down the other barrier because there's a new attack angle for the second barrier that wasn't there until the first one went down. The other stages with 2 barriers make it much harder to take the other barrier when one goes down because they are much smaller and aren't touching at the start of the game. This feature of the barriers I think creates the most compelling pacing of any map, where there's a steady rise in tension as the barriers go down when the other stages either have a dramatic rise in tension when a barrier goes down or has reduced tension when a barrier goes down because the other barrier is so hard to get. Also, the speed boost is the most fun hazard to play with on its own, and helps distract from the lack of teamplay. My biggest complaint is that sometimes, the corners of the barriers are inconsistent, where it feels like sometimes the barriers go down for no reason when it touches the far corners of the barrier, usually when the goalie tries to clear it.
Ahten City I think is the exact opposite of Night Market, where it's the king of teamplay at the comparative expense of a dynamic gameplay experience. The goal barrier is big and wide enough that you're not aiming at it like you're trying to score, which is the bare minimum I would expect a goal barrier to try and do, and the complete lack of stage hazards means there's nothing to inhibit. This means that this stage promotes solid teamplay fundamentals while still putting in the minimum amount of effort to make the gameplay dynamic. My only complaint is the orbs: I think it's really interesting for Ahten City to have more orbs than the other stages to make it more interesting, but the fact that it spawns 6 orbs in 6 different locations when the other 5 stages spawn 3 orbs of 4 different locations means that all the orbs players get are rather predictable. I think it would be a far more interesting stage if it spawned 5 orbs (1 in each goalie box and 3 on the stage) so it at least keeps the consistency of "max orbs -1" of the other stages and to make the gameplay slightly more dynamic as players need to react to different orbs being available throughout the game.
Demon Dais is very interesting because its gameplay novelty hinges heavily around it having the most unique gameplay experience, and it's all thanks to the goal barrier. The goal barrier is so far forward that it forces goalies to play a lot further forward than they would on other stages and allows forwards to play behind their opponent's goal barrier, which isn't possible on any other stage. The speakers don't change much about the gameplay by themselves, but the fact that they grow stronger as the barriers go down makes the moment-to-moment gameplay feel considerably different from other stages. Teamplay is inhibited by the fact that players are clumped together when the barrier is up and not gliding behind it, which makes passing not very rewarding and makes it more likely that opponents will be blocking a passing lane, but that's a fine concession for Demon Dais' gameplay experience.
Oni Village has good teamplay without the dynamic gameplay. It's so difficult to defend both barriers at once that it's considered optimal to let one barrier go down and focus on defending the other barrier, and that other barrier small enough and has so few attack angles that it's much easier to defend than the other barriers. In addition, the speed boost makes it much easier for forwards to help defend the goal barrier than on other maps, and using the wall is hard because the speed boost makes it hard to dribble and provides no room to hit around the goalie. In addition, teamplay isn't as well supported as it is on the other maps because the goal barrier is so small that passes are extremely easy to react to. A lot of players don't like this stage because of how much longer it makes games, and while I think it offers a dynamic gameplay experience and has no hazards to inhibit teamplay I don't think it does either particularly well because of how easy it is to defend that second barrier compared to the barriers on all the other stages.
Ai.mi's App is far and away my least favorite stage. The small, centralized goal barrier centered right in front of the goal means that the objectives of the goalie and forwards don't change throughout the match, and the pit inhibits teamplay just by existing in the same way that the Night Market walls inhibit teamplay. I say this as a Rasmus player, who benefits greatly from this map's features, because I don't like how I'm forced to pick or ban a particular character (even though I do really enjoy the character) and I don't like how his presence single-handedly warps the gameplay on the map itself. I expect changes to Rasmus' Death Touch because of this map, but I also hope this map gets changes in the future because it's honestly the most boring map to play on over long periods of time.

Characters and Micropatches

I don't like touching on game balance in these posts because it produces very poor discussion points that creates chaos in the ensuing discussion as people argue about a character's power level. Same thing with any other aspect of the game. The closest I will get to touching game balance comes from balance philosophy since it's based on more substantial ideas of how a game can and should be balanced rather than any individual balancing decision. I say all that to preface that everything I say in this section is in regards to game design rather than game balance, and don't want to be misinterpreted as wanting changes to any individual characters.
I say all this to say that micropatches are being severely misused. Making balance changes requires data, and the time frame between a patch and a micropatch (or between micropatches in some cases) is not enough time to gather enough data to make informed balance changes. In addition, it's possible that the meta changes without developer intervention, and doing balance changes too quickly can lead to an overreactive change that makes the character substantially better or worse as the perception of the character got better or worse and leads to the character being too strong or weak until the moment the developer decides to change them again. Micropatches are best used when they're primarily used to fix bugs that will improve the gameplay experience for a majority of players, not when they're used for balance changes, and I hope that micropatches are used as such in the future.
In terms of characters, there are two characters that I think have problematic aspects of their design. One of these problems I touched on before, and is based on the interaction between Rasmus and Ai.mi's App. Rasmus is considerably better on Ai.mi's App than any other stage because of how Death Touch interacts with the pit, and has the largest difference in viability between different stages with possibly no close second. While I think it's appropriate for characters to be better on certain stages than others I think Rasmus takes it to an unacceptable extreme, as he warps the gameplay experience so much on that one particular map and it makes it impossible to balance him for other maps without completely breaking him on Ai.mi's App unless Death Touch can't pull unstaggered enemies.
The other character I think is problematic for the overall health of the game is Octavia. The nature of Octavia's speed boost rewards playing extremely selfishly to maintain it when players should be rewarded for working as a team and forces her opponents to target her to keep her from pulling off her game plan. No other character warps the game around them nearly as hard as Octavia does (including Rasmus on Ai.mi's App), nor does any other character make the game less fun for teammates when successfully pulling off their intended game plan. Octavia needs a rework to bring her up to the gameplay standards of the other 16 characters, since right now she's not playing the same game as the other characters.
I want to finish with something that might be controversial: I think light hits are outdated. During the beta, light hits were used with medium and heavy hits to denote the gameplay mechanics of many different types of abilities. Now, that gameplay distinction is gone outside of a handful of awakening interactions. In addition, most light hit abilities don't state that they slow enemies in their tooltips, and there are abilities counted as a light hit that definitely don't slow, most notably the basic strike. Finally, light hits are used as an extremely arbitrary balance mechanism with awakening interactions, where moves like Kai's Barrage being capable of gaining 12 stacks of Stacks on Stacks from hitting a single target when Rasmus can use Whiplash to get 8 stacks with a miracle where the enemy team clusters around the core. Perhaps the most notable example of how messed up this is is Era, who (assuming her Bewitching Beam works like it did during beta, where it was definitely a light hit) gets only 2 stacks per hit with her primary but can get 30+ stacks easily by hitting a single fully charged Magic Maelstrom and can 100-0 opponents with said Magic Maelstrom using Tempo Swing, which I don't think is acceptable in spite of playing Era. I think everyone should be reevaluated for their light hits as to whether they should count as light hits for the purpose of awakenings or not and update their tooltips to say how much enemies are slowed and/or that it only knocks back unstaggered enemies. The result should be that these abilities do the same thing they do now, with wording that better reflects their capabilities with awakenings. I think the most important aspect of retuning light hits would be to make it so that Strikes and multi-hitting moves like Barrage and Magic Maelstrom are all reduced and single-hit abilities like Whiplash and sourspot Bellringer get full value, so maybe the best solution would be to replace the light hit keyword with a new keyword called "multihit" for these types of abilities.
submitted by TheIncomprehensible to OmegaStrikers [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 02:47 kauan1983 The conspiracy lore and the dynamic between the government agencies in Stranger Things

The conspiracy lore and the dynamic between the government agencies in Stranger Things
Something that i am extremely fascinated about in Stranger Things is the government conspiracy angle of the series, and over the seasons, i felt that the writing started to give us less details about how the government agencies work in this universe. Also, many details of the lore are still unresolved, and i fear some of them might not be resolved in S5, so I decided to make an analysis of everything that involves the government in the show to create my own version of the timeline of the events involving the U.S. government, and gather information to hypothesize events that may have happened offscreen, the occupations of some characters within the government and what agencies are involved with everything that has happened in the show since S1. I hope you guys enjoy the read!

PROJECT MKULTRA
- In 1953, The MKUltra program was officially sanctioned by the CIA, a multimillion-dollar initiative intended to develop mind control techniques. The experiments would be conducted in many hospitals, prisons and colleges across the U.S. Hawkins National Laboratory was one of many facilities in the U.S. where MKUltra was being conducted - Dr. Martin Brenner was the director of CIA operations at this laboratory.
- MKUltra is a real CIA-sanctioned research that was officially halted in 1973. And it was the basis for a science-based horror in the show's lore. But the Duffers never wanted to really dive into it, as the story they wanted to tell was mainly inspired by the Montauk Project and would focus in children with super powers and other dimensions.
There is a little talk about it in the official behind the scenes companion Worlds Turned Upside Down:
I wouldn't say we had done necessarily a deep dive into it. It was more a surface glance of seeing what they were up to and then using it as an excuse to have science-based horror in our narrative. — Ross Duffer
- The presence of the MKUltra in the lore is what canonically establishes the CIA as the bad men we see in S1 and briefly in S2. The agency is only mentioned once in the show when Hopper and Powell are investigating documents about the HNL/MKUltra, but we can confirm that the CIA was also responsible for funding Brenner's program as in the Worlds Turned Upside Down book we can see government cards with a "Central Intelligence Agency Clandestine Ops" badge in it.
PROJECT INDIGO
- Doctor Brenner's program. It's the main government project of Stranger Things, and although never mentioned in the show, the name of the program was supposed to be "INDIGO" which was also the proposed name of the show as stated by the Duffers in their MasterClass:
So we just came up with a bunch of ideas. We had The Keep, we had INDIGO which was gonna be the name of the government program, and amidst that we had Stranger Things. — Ross Duffer
It's unclear if the Duffers kept the name as it was never mentioned in the show, but the name is mentioned in the Suspicious Minds book, which was supervised by one of the show's writers - Paul Dichter.
Project Indigo is basically the Hawkins equivalent of the Montauk Project. While the MKUltra was the Duffers' basis for a science-based horror in the lore, INDIGO is where the most crazy, cutting-edge developments in science come in. The Duffers had the desire to play with the "sandbox" of elements that the Montauk conspiracy could offer. In the conspiracy, there were talks about children with psychic/psionic powers (which became the Numbers 001 to 018), other dimensions (like the Upside Down, Dimension X and the Hellscape), alien contact, monsters being unleashed (Demogorgon/DX entities) and even time travel, which is something that was originally part of the ST mythology as we can see in the document below:
The Montauk Pitch by the Duffer Brothers

THE PROGRAM STARTS
- As we learned in S4, the beginning of the program happens in 1959, and is a result of Dr. Brenner discovering a boy with extraordinary psychic abilities, Henry, after his mother contacts him in the hopes of sending him to a facility where he would be locked away and fixed. Henry, knowing what his mother was planning, decided to kill his whole family, but would eventually fall into a coma due to not knowing his limits while using his psychic powers.
- Brenner knew what the boy did and also what he was capable of, and wanted to not just study but also control him. After the Creel House murders, Brenner would take Henry to the lab and the CIA would cover up anything that could compromise their operation. Victor Creel, the only survivor of the events in the house was declared legally insane, the records of what Victor claimed to have occurred in his house were sealed.
- Brenner eventually sold to the CIA a separate program that he planned to start, a program that would study Henry Creel who was presented to the government as a potential weapon against the Soviets as stated by Matt Duffer in this interview by Deadline.
He knew what this kid did and also what he was capable of when he was young. Brenner’s going, how can I mold this character, but not just into a weapon? That’s really how he sold it to the government, but for him as a scientist, it’s like, what other worlds can this kid show me about how our universe works? — Matt Duffer
- As a scientist, Brenner had the desire to not only mold Henry into a weapon but also use him as a means to reach other worlds/dimensions and understand how the universe works. That makes me think that, at the time, Brenner expected Henry to be able to do what he would later discover only Eleven could do, which was the capablity of opening a rift or tear in time-space via psychic energy.
- At some point, I would guess in late 1959 - early 1960s, an unknown event led Brenner to pacify Henry's abilities via Soteria. After that, Brenner would decide to evolve his program, replicating Henry's powers in other kids. This is something Matt Duffer confirmed that S5 will explore,
It’s something we will get into in Season 5. What happened to that program once Henry became involved and how Brenner evolved it into including multiple kids. We’re going to go back and see some of that in Season 5.
How Brenner tried to replicate Henry's abilities is unclear, but there's something mentioned in the Montauk bible that caught my attention and could be a brief explanation of how these preternatural abilities arise in some individuals:
ELEVEN was an orphan with telekinesis. her preternatural abilities have been linked to mutations caused by her mothers drug use.
In this version of the Eleven's backstory, the Duffers had not yet conceived El's mother being Terry Ives, the MKUltra involvement in the lore, and El's abilities being the result of experiments on her mother. Instead, we have genetic mutations caused by drug use.
If there's any chance this is an explanation to how some individuals are born with psychic abilities, i suspect that Brenner knew that drugs had the potential to cause such mutations and that via experiments and training, he would unlock these supernatural psychic abilities. Knowing that, Brenner would use the MKUltra (which mainly involved psychedelic drugs) as a means to new supernatural kids to be born, just like it happened to Eleven.
Virginia Creel's backstory
In episode 7, Henry mentions that his parents did "such awful things." and that he "held up a mirror" to show them who they really were, but we never got to see what Henry used against his mother. Whatever awful thing she did, is still a mystery in the show.
Also, Virginia somehow knew that Henry had supernatural abilities, so i think it's plausible to assume that, perhaps, Virginia knew it because of something dark in her past, something she believed resulted in her son being born with supernatural abilities and becoming a "broken" kid. The drug element that i mentioned before could also play a role in the origin of Henry's powers and whatever these dark memories of Virginia are.
In S4E7 script, we can see that the whole part where Virginia suspects Henry is the responsible for the strange happenings in the house and contacts Brenner to lock her son away is missing. Meaning the writers later decided to add more layers to this backstory that may be explored in S5.
The Duffer Brothers have confirmed in interviews that S5 will explore more of Henry's prequel story, and it was recently revealed in an article from BBC that the 'The First Shadow' stage play influences S5, so i'm hoping this means we'll see more of the Creels, specially Virginia.
They were able to adjust some of the "things in the play" and said that working on it had given them ideas for the upcoming season five.
Matt Duffer added: "Some of the mythology stuff is a little bit trickier, but like Ross said, it's been fun to have the play influence the show, and the show influenced the play,
1960's - THE PROGRAM EVOLVES
- The evolution of Brenner's program logically took place during the 1960s, and some of that was already hinted in S2 when we discover that Terry had documents about people she believed were like her daughter. In some of those documents we get to see that Kali was abducted in London, a Cleveland teen girl who was seemingly abducted in Indiana, and a newborn boy was taken from a hospital. The baby was in the care of a nurse who was found dead in her home.
- in 1969, Ray Carroll started working at HNL as an orderly.
1970's
- At some point in the early 70's, Terry Ives got involved with MKUltra. (In the Suspicious Minds book, we learn that Terry was involved with MKUltra in 1969 but i'm not considering any information from the book due to the huge amount of inconsistencies.)
- After Brenner kidnapped Eleven in 1971, the BreneHNL would face charges and lawsuits from Terry Ives but they were denied due to lack of evidence.
- In 1973, the MKUltra was officially halted.
- In 1974, Terry would try to take Eleven from the laboratory. Brenner ordered Terry to undergo an eletroshock therapy, ordering Ray Carroll to set the voltage up to 450 and then proceeded to electrocute her until her brain was damaged.
- In 1979, One succeeded in having El "free" him by removing the Soteria from him. Regaining his psychic abilities, Henry kills all the Indigo numbers except for Eleven who would eventually banish him out of our dimension. After the attack, El falls into a coma, and Brenner doesn't dare bring another number to the lab. Instead, Brenner focuses the experiments on Eleven, who has repressed not only her memories of the past events but also her powers after waking up from her coma. Brenner knew that Eleven's abilities weren't lost but needed a "spark" to be restored.
1983
- Brenner believed that One was somewhere out there, "hiding in the darkness", and in 1983, after Eleven's powers were restored, Brenner would eventually use her abilities to find him.
- In one experiment, El hears a strange sound that would get Brenner's attention. Despite El getting scared and the experiment being aborted, Brenner would repeat the experiment with the intention of making "contact".
- On the night of november 6, 1983, El makes psychic contact with the Demogorgon in the Void, inadvertentely creating TUD, opening the mothergate and unleashing the monster. She eventually escaped the HNL that night.
- On the next day, Brenner and the CIA receive a visit from agents that according to the S1E1 script were NSA. CIA and NSA agents would eventually work together to find Eleven and cover up anything that would compromise the secrecy of their clandestine operation.
- Brenner and his team of agents along with MPs would go to the Hawkins Middle School in order to find Eleven after Hopper revealed her location. For their surprise, the Demogorgon appears in the school, distracting the agents and MPs, allowing the kids to run away from the CIA with Eleven. Brenner is brutally attacked by the Demogorgon, but survives the attack.
- After the events in the school, we see hopper entering a black sedan with CIA agents.
- CIA agents go to the Wheelers House searching for Eleven. This is the last time we see Brenner's men in the show. In the next season, the HNL would have a new director and a new staff.
- In a clipping at Hawkins Police Station, there's information on the aftermath of the events in november, 1983, where we learn that Joyce Byers publicy alleged that Will was the subject of a secret government program. Joyce's allegation comes amidst the investigation into the past allegations of the lab's involvement with mind control experiments (MKUltra).
- As to where Brenner and his entire staff were after the events in november, it is unknown, but i suspect Owens knew about what happened to them as in S2 he seems to be certain that Brenner's men were gone.
The point is, mistakes have been made. Yes. Abundant mistakes, but, the men involved with those mistakes, the ones responsible for what happened to your brother and Miss Holland's death, they're gone. They're gone, and for better for worse, i'm the schmuck they brought in to make things better. — Sam Owens
I've come to suspect that after the events of November '83, when the entire HNL staff was replaced, everything documented/recorded about the CIA's clandestine operations was securely locked away by CIA or DOE operatives, likely in the decommissioned Nevada Silo. (One alternate possibility is that those documents and recordings were stored in the Silo after the HNL was closed in december, 1984)
Something that I find interesting is that both the Silo Lab and Owens' residence are located in Nevada, and in S4E5, when Eleven is taken to the Silo, originally the titles "Ruth, Nevada" appeared on the screen, that was later removed, but it implies that both the Silo and Owens' residence were close. This leads me to suspect that long before Owens and Brenner conceived of the NINA program, Owens already knew about the abandoned Silo in Nevada and decided to used it to store every TOP-SECRET documents/recordings of the CIA operations at HNL.
https://preview.redd.it/qjidk3560i3b1.png?width=1334&format=png&auto=webp&v=enabled&s=287916d61b1b71b59d7b8c7ed3a7355f2b073f44
One interesting detail is that the idea of ​​the government securely locking away videotapes is something the Duffers planned for their original Montauk conception, which most of it was a prototype for what we've seen in Stranger Things. In The Montauk Experiment, the O.S.S. would securely lock away film cannisters with recordings of everything that happened in Camp Hero after the experiments ended in a blood-soaked event. Details in the document below:
The logline for 'The Montauk Experiment'

DOCTOR SAM OWENS' POSITION IN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
- Sam Owens is a high-ranking member within U.S. Department of Energy as mentioned in the first official description of his character. Sometime between late 1983 - early 1984 he would be brought to HNL on a ‘clean-up’ assignment, tasked with containing the mess left by the CIA in 1983 and making things better.
- As I previously mentioned, Owens may have been responsible for locking away all the documented CIA experimentation at HNL, and he also may have known the whereabouts of Brenner and other scientists and CIA operatives who worked with him all along. I would even assume that Owens and Brenner may have been in contact all this time.
- During his time as director of the operations at HNL, Owens was involved in Will's treatment and in containing the spread of TUD.
- In November 1984, during the Demodogs invasion, Owens met Eleven, who eventually closed the gate, ending TUD invasion.
- A month later, the operations at HNL were officially shut down and the lab was closed after the release of the tape recording Owens' "confession", and Owens decided to help Eleven have a normal life under Hopper's care, giving him a forged birth certificate, and recommending Hopper to "let things cool off" for a year. This, of course, was done without the knowledge of the U.S. government.

FACTONS WITHIN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
After the events os S2, in addition to the CIA Clandestine Ops and the DOE, other different agencies were introduced in the story:
- US Army/Pentagon that briefly appears at the end of s3 (although we've seen the Military Police in the previous seasons which is a branch of the Army), and would be an antagonist faction in S4.
- FBI agents who are presented as friends of Owens and allied to our main characters in S4.

SULLIVAN'S FACTION
- At some point after the HNL was closed, Doctor Owens, in addition to his high-ranking position in the DOE, also gained some position within the U.S. Army/Pentagon, probably tasked with monitoring and maintaining security in Hawkins after the lab was closed and the military presence left town. Lieutenant Colonel Jack Sullivan was involved in this, and it's possible he and Owens worked together.
- An interesting detail is that the arm patch on Lt. Colonel Sullivan's uniform confirms that he's an United States Army Criminal Investigation Division operative, hence his associaton with the Pentagon.
- At some point (i assume 1985), rumors about Eleven being alive and receiving help from someone within the U.S. government began to surface within the Pentagon, this would affect Owens' reputation.
- It's also worth mentioning that in S4E6, Sullivan seems to imply that he knew or at least believed Brenner was alive.
Explanation two, Dr. Brenner's special little pet has gone rogue again and he and his lackeys are now seeking to cover it up. Perhaps in the hopes of selling their pet to the Soviets. — Lt. Colonel Sullivan
There's also this interview with Sherman Augustus where the interviewer asks him if Sullivan knows that Brenner is still alive, and Sherman's answer implies that Brenner being alive is something that wouldn't surprise Sullivan, Maybe because it was rumored within the Pentagon too. Basically, there's nothing that Sullivan doesn't know or expect about what's been happening in Hawkins and within the government since the events of S1.
I'm pretty sure he knows that there's certain elements... because he says in the dialogue "there's rumors that she's getting help from someone on the inside". So there is nothing that he is not, you know, equating in that situation, he's not surprised. Whatever it is, you have to be a really strong and dynamic individual to be able to go in and try to kick E.T in the butt. — Sherman Augustus
- In July 1985, Owens would find out about a foreign government invasion in Hawkins, and would go to Hawkins with Army/Pentagon forces to deal with the invasion, only to find an empty Soviet bunker.

OWENS' FACTION
- After the events in July, Owens got fired from his position in the miitary for failing his assignment to monitor security at Hawkins, i believe the previously mentioned rumors about him may also have played a role in his dismissal.
- Owens, knowing that El had lost her powers, feared a further re-emergence of the TUD, which led him to begin developing a means to restore her abilities and bring them back stronger than before.
- Owens would ally with Brenner to develop a way to restore Eleven's abilities, and Brenner convinced Owens that the only way to do so was via a process of re-experiencing her repressed memories in a program that they would later call NINA. It's unclear when Brenner and Owens' alliance started, but i personally believe they knew each other for longer than we initially thought, and shortly after the July events, Owens' looked for Brenner's help in order to develop a means to restore El's powers.
- Despite being fired from his position in the military, Owens was still a DOE member and also had connections to the FBI (Ellen Stinson and other agents), and he used his power to clandestinely provide Brenner with the necessary resources to establish the NINA Project. For the program to be sanctioned, he had to compromise his principles, and risk his life and that of his family. Something worth noting is that in the episode 7 script, the dialogue where Owens expresses his disappointment with NINA's progress is a little different:
I've given you all the resources you've asked for, i've given you your people, i've compromised my principles, i've risked my life, my family's life, all because you assured me this would work. That this was the only way. — Sam Owens
By "i've given you your people" we can confirm that Owens gave to Brenner his old HNL staff, who as we saw in S4E8, were loyal to him. And we can also confirm by Sam's words that he had to give Brenner resources, meaning, wherever Brenner was after the events oF S1, he was left with no resources and access to his old staff.
- Owens and Brenner would establish NINA in the same abandoned Silo in Nevada where Owens presumably locked away all the video tapes and documents from HNL.
THE FACTION CONFLICT
- After Owens' dismissal, Sullivan apparently became the responsible for monitoring Hawkins and maintaining the security in the town.
- In March 1986, a supernatural murder in Hawkins comes to Sullivan's attention, and after an autopsy is performed by Army medical doctors, Sullivan concludes that the murder was done remotely, which tied in with the rumors about Eleven being alive and getting help from someone within the U.S. government who he, and probably other operatives within the Pentagon believed was Sam Owens.
- Upon that conclusion, Sullivan would begin a clandestine military operation in order to investigate Eleven's whereabouts, and this leads him to Owens.
- Something worth noting is that when we are first introduced to Sullivan, he arrives in Indiana in an U.S. Army helicopter to investigate the circumstances of an unusual murder, but when he begins his operation to hunt down Eleven, he goes to Ruth, Nevada in an unmarked black helicopter, alluding to the fact that this is a clandestine military operation:

Sullivan arrives in Indiana

Sullivan leaves Owens' residence in Nevada

Something interesting about the scene where Sullivan visits Owens that adds some information on what the U.S. government has been up to is the dialogue between Sullivan and Owens from this audition tape which is a bit different from the dialogue from the show:
There were no signs of an attacker. No bruises, no signs of any struggle. It's as if her attacker was a ghost. — Lt. Colonel SullivanSo what is this, really? I mean, why are you here? all of the sudden you want to help again? — Sam Owens Dr. Owens, 30 civilians died last year, a foreign government invaded our country all under your watch. There had to be consequences, you've got to understand that — Lt. Colonel Sullivan
Owens' question implies that Sullivan has been helping him at some point, probably in monitoring Hawkins like a mentioned before, which would explain how he knew so much about what has happened there all this years.
And Sullivan's response implies that after Owens got fired, it became his responsability to maintain security in Hawkins, which is why he was there, asking Owens Eleven's whereabouts.
- Owens refuses to tell Sullivan Eleven's whereabouts, and Jack decides to do things "the hard way", taking multiple items from Owens' house in order to investigate everything Sam has done and everyone he has spoken to in 1985 and luckily, be able to find where Eleven is.
- Owens knew that the former Indigo test subject One was back when he saw pictures of Chrissy's body, and via a DOE intranet, he requests the immediate acceleration of NINA. He makes it clear that their secret program and facility were compromised and that the Pentagon was involved. And for the security of their program, Owens implements a communication lockdown.
- Owens uses his FBI connections to have agents help him find Eleven, maintain the secrecy of the operation and protect people closely associated with Eleven who could be found by Sullivan. Some of those agents are Ellen Stinson, who seems to be Owens' right hand, Agent Harmon, and Agent Wallace.
- In the meantime, Sullivan/the Pentagon was able to find out that Owens moved Eleven to Lenora Hills, CA, and would eventually send a group of agents/soldiers to find her.
- After finding Eleven with a group of agents and convicing her to go with him in order to get her powers back, Owens takes El to the Silo Lab while Agents Harmon and Wallace would stay with Mike, Jonathan and Will to protect them, and Agent Stinson would be closely monitoring Hawkins with 2 more agents.
- Sullivan, after a shootout in the Byers' house takes Agent Wallace to a black site to torture him in order to find out where Eleven was, and after a long time of torture, Wallace gave away Eleven's location.
- After NINA succeeded in restoring Eleven's abilities, Owens, believing she was ready, would call Stinson to have her prepare the transit from Nevada to Hawkins, Indiana through her connections at Nellis.
- Brenner would eventually betray Owens and considered killing him in order to stop Eleven from leaving the Silo Lab. After the conflict between Owens and Brenner, the Pentagon finally arrives at the location revealed by Agent Wallace and a conflict between the U.S army and the MP soldiers resulted in the death of Brenner, his men and all the scientists in the Silo Lab, except Owens.
- Eleven escapes the Pentagon with her friends, and we see Sullivan and some of his soldiers for the last time in S4, in the Nevada desert.
Episodes 8 and 9 made it clear that El still needs to hide and Sullivan's faction is still after her. It's worth mentioning that Sullivan was the only villain in ST4 not to be killed or at least injured, so it's almost certain that this guy will be back in ST5 to kick E.T's ass. Specially know that a full-scale TUD invasion is about the happen in Hawkins.
POSSIBILITIES FOR S5:

Sullivan investigates the video tapes in the silo lab
S4 ended without us knowing what happened to Owens and Sullivan after eleven escaped, but we do know that both characters are in the Silo Lab and that Sullivan now has access to a vast amount of video tapes that he would certainly investigate and this would create many possibilities for the Pentagon's role in S5.

Sullivan's Mission in Hawkins
Sullivan is still responsible for monitoring Hawkins, and at some point he will probably learn about what is happening in the town (which is also where El is hiding now), possibly via the military presence in Hawkins that we saw in the ST4 epilogue.
Something that caught my attention was the presence of a Research Lab vehicle on the set of downtown Hawkins, this vehicle never appeared in the show, and it was not mentioned in the script of episode 9. But it makes me think that at the end of S4, the Military is not just trying to help Hawkins citizen after this "federal disaster", but also researching into TUD, which perhaps is an operation led by Sullivan? let me know what you guys think.

S1 parallels
If we have Sullivan in Hawkins in S5, we most certainly will get more Government vs Eleven scenes, which would parallel Brenner and the CIA in S1. I particularly believe that S5 will have many parallels with what the Duffers planned for the first season of Montauk,
ACT THREE (episodes 7-8) will climax with characters working together to outsmart the military, venture into this alternate dimension, save Will, and, hopefully, close this "tear" once and for all.

Doctor Owens in 1959 flashbacks
Something I found extremely suspicious is that in S4, Owens seemed to know more than we initially thought.
He's claimed three victims so far, and when i saw the eyes, i knew... i knew that was him. He was him. He was sending us a message, letting us know he's back.
This sentence from Owens confirms that he somehow knew Henry's killing manner. It's plausible to assume that Owens learned about Henry and the other Indigo Numbers after being brought to the lab to "make things better". But I personally believe that there must be a greater reason why he was brought to HNL after S1, I believe Owens was already aware of the clandestine operations that had been happening in the HNL for years (at least some of it) and had known Dr. Brenner since the 1950's. I would even consider the possibility that Owens has been involved in clandestine government operations in the past and that somehow led him to find out about the HNL and Brenner's program.
In this interview by The Wrap, Ross Duffer's words about Brenner and Owens' alliance caught my attention because the way he puts it felt like Owens has known Brenner for longer than we think.
Once that first kill with Chrissy happens, then their fears are realized and that’s what jump starts their whole storyline. I mean, that is why Owens is collaborating with Brenner, a man he also does not like. He respects him, but despises the man, because he also knows he’s the key to stopping One, to stopping Vecna.
By my suspicion, i came up with the theory/fanfic that Owens could have worked with Brenner in the 50's and was aware of what happened in the Creel House in '59. Maybe he even met young Henry and interacted with him after he woke up from his coma. If there's any chance that i'm right about it, i would imagine the Owens and Henry interactions would parallel the scenes with Owens and Will in S2.

Stinson becomes the new Owens / Her alliance with the adults
Agent Stinson was apparently Owens' right hand in S4 and also the leader among the agents of Owens' faction, being involved in the operations in Nevada, Hawkins and even being responsible for driving Hopper and Joyce to Hawkins. Imo, Stinson has the potential to become the "new Owens"/Main government operative to help our main characters while Owens is MIA. She could also send some agents to investigate what happened to Owens. I have a personal theory that Stinson will join the adults in S5 and help them on a mission to outsmart the military. And i think the "knowing nod" between Hop and Stinson in S4E9 might be a hint of a possible team up for S5.
submitted by kauan1983 to StrangerThings [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 02:40 kauan1983 The conspiracy lore and the dynamic between the government agencies in Stranger Things

The conspiracy lore and the dynamic between the government agencies in Stranger Things
Something that i am extremely fascinated about in Stranger Things is the government conspiracy angle of the series, and over the seasons, i felt that the writing started to give us less details about how the government agencies work in this universe. Also, many details of the lore are still unresolved, and i fear some of them might not be resolved in S5, so I decided to make an analysis of everything that involves the government in the show to create my own version of the timeline of the events involving the U.S. government and gather information to hypothesize events that may have happened offscreen, the occupations of some characters within the government and what agencies are involved with everything that has happened in the show since S1. I hope you guys enjoy the read!

PROJECT MKULTRA
- In 1953, The MKUltra program was officially sanctioned by the CIA, a multimillion-dollar initiative intended to develop mind control techniques. the experiments would be conducted in many hospitals, prisons and colleges across the US. Hawkins National Laboratory was one of many facilities in the U.S where MKUltra was being conducted - Dr. Martin Brenner was the director of CIA operations at this laboratory.
- MKUltra is a real CIA-sanctioned research that was officially halted in 1973. And it was the basis for a science-based horror in the show's lore. But the Duffers never wanted to really dive into it, as the story they wanted to tell was mainly inspired by the Montauk Project and would focus in children with super powers and other dimensions.
There is a little talk about it in the official behind the scenes companion Worlds Turned Upside Down:
I wouldn't say we had done necessarily a deep dive into it. It was more a surface glance of seeing what they were up to and then using it as an excuse to have science-based horror in our narrative. — Ross Duffer
- The presence of the MKUltra in the lore is what canonically establishes the CIA as the bad men we see in S1 and briefly in S2. The agency is only mentioned once in the show when Hopper and Powell are investigating documents about the HNL/MKUltra, but we can confirm that the CIA was also responsible for funding Brenner's program as in the Worlds Turned Upside Down book we can see government cards with a "Central Intelligence Agency Clandestine Ops" badge in it.

PROJECT INDIGO
- Doctor Brenner's program. It's the main government project of Stranger Things, and although never mentioned in the show, the name of the program was supposed to be "INDIGO" which was also the proposed name of the show as stated by the Duffers in their MasterClass:
So we just came up with a bunch of ideas. We had The Keep, we had INDIGO which was gonna be the name of the government program, and amidst that we had Stranger Things. — Ross Duffer
It's unclear if the Duffers kept the name as it was never mentioned in the show, but the name is mentioned in the Suspicious Minds book, which was supervised by one of the show's writers - Paul Dichter.
Project Indigo is basically the Hawkins equivalent of the Montauk Project. While the MKUltra was the Duffers' basis for a science-based horror in the lore, INDIGO is where the most crazy, cutting-edge developments in science come in. The Duffers had the desire to play with the "sandbox" of elements that the Montauk conspiracy could offer. In the conspiracy, there were talks about children with psychic/psionic powers (which became the Numbers 001 to 018), other dimensions (like the Upside Down, Dimension X and the Hellscape), alien contact, monsters being unleashed (Demogorgon/DX entities) and even time travel, which is something that was originally part of the ST mythology as we can see in the document below:

The Montauk pitch by the Duffer Brothers

THE PROGRAM STARTS
- As we learned in S4, the beginning of the program happens in 1959, and is a result of Dr. Brenner discovering a boy with extraordinary psychic abilities, Henry, after his mother contacts him in the hopes of sending him to a facility where he would be locked away and fixed. Henry, knowing what his mother was planning, decided to kill his whole family, but would eventually fall into a coma due to not knowing his limits while using his psychic powers.
- Brenner knew what the boy did and also what he was capable of, and wanted to not just study but also control him. After the Creel House murders, Brenner would take Henry to the lab and the CIA would cover up anything that could compromise their operation. Victor Creel, the only survivor of the events in the house was declared legally insane, and the records of what Victor claimed to have occurred in his house were sealed.
- Brenner eventually sold to the CIA a separate program that he planned to start, a program that would study Henry Creel who was presented to the government as a potential weapon against the Soviets as stated by Matt Duffer in this interview by Deadline.
He knew what this kid did and also what he was capable of when he was young. Brenner’s going, how can I mold this character, but not just into a weapon? That’s really how he sold it to the government, but for him as a scientist, it’s like, what other worlds can this kid show me about how our universe works? — Matt Duffer
- As a scientist, Brenner had the desire to not only mold Henry into a weapon but also use him as a means to reach other worlds/dimensions and understand how the universe works. That makes me think that, at the time, Brenner expected Henry to be able to do what he would later discover only Eleven could do, which was the capablity of opening a rift or tear in time-space via psychic energy.
  • At some point, I would guess in late 1959 - early 1960s, an unknown event led Brenner to pacify Henry's abilities via Soteria. After that, Brenner would decide to evolve his program, replicating Henry's powers in other kids. This is something Matt Duffer confirmed that S5 will explore:
It’s something we will get into in Season 5. What happened to that program once Henry became involved and how Brenner evolved it into including multiple kids. We’re going to go back and see some of that in Season 5. — Matt Duffer
How Brenner tried to replicate Henry's abilities is unclear, but there's something mentioned in the Montauk bible that caught my attention and could be a brief explanation of how these preternatural abilities arise in some individuals:
ELEVEN was an orphan with telekinesis. her preternatural abilities have been linked to mutations caused by her mothers drug use.
In this version of the Eleven's backstory, the Duffers had not yet conceived El's mother being Terry Ives, the MKUltra involvement in the lore, and El's abilities being the result of experiments on her mother. Instead, we have genetic mutations caused by drug use.
If there's any chance this is an explanation to how some individuals are born with psychic abilities, i suspect that Brenner knew that drugs had the potential to cause such mutations and that via experiments and training, he would unlock these supernatural psychic abilities. Knowing that, Brenner would use the MKUltra (which mainly involved psychedelic drugs) as a means to new supernatural kids to be born, just like it happened to Eleven.

Virginia Creel's backstory
In episode 7, Henry mentions that his parents did "such awful things." and that he "held up a mirror" to show them who they really were, but we never got to see what Henry used against his mother. Whatever awful thing she did, is still a mystery in the show.
Also, Virginia somehow knew that Henry had supernatural abilities, so i think it's plausible to assume that, perhaps, Virginia knew it because of something dark in her past, something she believed resulted in her son being born with supernatural abilities and becoming a "broken" kid. The drug element that i mentioned before could also play a role in the origin of Henry's powers and whatever these dark memories of Virginia are.
In S4E7 script, we can see that the whole part where Virginia suspects Henry is the responsible for the strange happenings in the house and contacts Brenner to lock her son away is missing. Meaning the writers later decided to add more layers to this backstory that may be explored in S5.
The Duffer Brothers have confirmed in interviews that S5 will explore more of Henry's prequel story, and it was recently revealed in an article from BBC that the 'The First Shadow' stage play influences S5, so i'm hoping this means we'll see more of the Creels, specially Virginia.
They were able to adjust some of the "things in the play" and said that working on it had given them ideas for the upcoming season five.
Matt Duffer added: "Some of the mythology stuff is a little bit trickier, but like Ross said, it's been fun to have the play influence the show, and the show influenced the play,

1960's - THE PROGRAM EVOLVES
- The evolution of Brenner's program logically took place during the 1960s, and some of that was already hinted in S2 when we discover that Terry had documents about people she believed were like her daughter. In some of those documents we get to see that Kali was abducted in London, a Cleveland teen girl who was seemingly abducted in Indiana, and a newborn boy was taken from a hospital. The baby was in the care of a nurse who was found dead in her home.
- in 1969, Ray Carroll started working at HNL as an orderly.

1970's
- At some point in the early 70's, Terry Ives got involved with MKUltra. (In the Suspicious Minds book, we learn that Terry was involved with MKUltra in 1969 but i'm not considering any information from the book due to the huge amount of inconsistencies.)
- After Brenner kidnapped Eleven in 1971, the HNL would face charges and lawsuits from Terry Ives but they were denied due to lack of evidence.
- In 1973, the MKUltra was officially halted.
- In 1974, Terry would try to take Eleven from the laboratory. Brenner ordered Terry to undergo an eletroshock therapy, ordering Ray Carroll to set the voltage up to 450 and then proceeded to electrocute her until her brain was damaged.
- In 1979, One succeeded in having El "free" him by removing the Soteria from him. Regaining his psychic abilities, Henry kills all the Indigo numbers except for Eleven who would eventually banish him out of our dimension. After the attack, El falls into a coma, and Brenner doesn't dare bring another number to the lab. Instead, Brenner focuses the experiments on Eleven, who has repressed not only her memories of the past events but also her powers after waking up from her coma. Brenner knew that Eleven's abilities weren't lost but needed a "spark" to be restored.

1983
- Brenner believed that One was somewhere out there, "hiding in the darkness", and in 1983, after Eleven's powers were restored, Brenner would eventually use her abilities to find him.
- In one experiment, El hears a strange sound that would get Brenner's attention. Despite El getting scared and the experiment being aborted, Brenner would repeat the experiment with the intention of making "contact".
- On the night of november 6, 1983, El makes psychic contact with the Demogorgon in the Void, inadvertentely creating TUD, opening the mothergate and unleashing the monster. She eventually escaped the HNL that night.
- On the next day, Brenner and the CIA receive a visit from agents that according to the S1E1 script were NSA. CIA and NSA agents would eventually work together to find Eleven and cover up anything that would compromise the secrecy of their clandestine operation.
- Brenner and his team of agents along with MPs would go to the Hawkins Middle School in order to find Eleven after Hopper revealed her location. For their surprise, the Demogorgon appears in the school, distracting the agents and MPs, allowing the kids to run away from the CIA with Eleven. Brenner is brutally attacked by the Demogorgon, but survives the attack.
- After the events in the school, we see hopper entering a black sedan with CIA agents.
- CIA agents go to the Wheelers House searching for Eleven. This is the last time we see Brenner's men in the show. In the next season, the HNL would have a new director and a new staff.
- In a clipping at Hawkins Police Station, there's information on the aftermath of the events in november, 1983, where we learn that Joyce Byers publicy alleged that Will was the subject of a secret government program. Joyce's allegation comes amidst the investigation into the past allegations of the lab's involvement with mind control experiments (MKUltra).
- As to where Brenner and his entire staff were after the events in november, it is unknown, but i suspect Owens knew about what happened to them as in S2 he seems to be certain that Brenner's men were gone.
The point is, mistakes have been made. Yes. Abundant mistakes, but, the men involved with those mistakes, the ones responsible for what happened to your brother and Miss Holland's death, they're gone. They're gone, and for better for worse, i'm the schmuck they brought in to make things better. — Sam Owens
I've come to suspect that after the events of November '83, when the entire HNL staff was replaced, everything documented/recorded about the CIA's clandestine operations was securely locked away by CIA or DOE operatives, likely in the decommissioned Nevada Silo. (One alternate possibility is that those documents and recordings were stored in the Silo after the HNL was closed in december, 1984)
Something that I find interesting is that both the Silo Lab and Owens' residence are located in Nevada, and in S4E5, when Eleven is taken to the Silo, originally the titles "Ruth, Nevada" appeared on the screen, that was later removed, but it implies that both the Silo and Owens' residence were close. This leads me to suspect that long before Owens and Brenner conceived of the NINA program, Owens already knew about the abandoned Silo in Nevada and decided to used it to store every TOP-SECRET documents/recordings of the CIA operations at HNL:
https://preview.redd.it/xh9e7lxqye3b1.png?width=1334&format=png&auto=webp&v=enabled&s=eafda108e43adbb8ff115ac586a13add1f1e8442
One interesting detail is that the idea of ​​the government securely locking away videotapes is something the Duffers planned for their original Montauk conception, which most of it was a prototype for what we've seen in Stranger Things. In The Montauk Experiment, the O.S.S. would securely lock away film cannisters with recordings of everything that happened in Camp Hero after the experiments ended in a blood-soaked event. Details in the document below:
The logline for 'The Montauk Experiment'

DOCTOR SAM OWENS' POSITION IN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
- Sam Owens is a high-ranking member within U.S. Department of Energy as mentioned in the first official description of his character. Sometime between late 1983 and early 1984 he would be brought to HNL on a ‘clean-up’ assignment, tasked with containing the mess left by the CIA in 1983 and making things better.
- As I previously mentioned, Owens may have been responsible for locking away all the documented CIA experimentation at HNL, and he also may have known the whereabouts of Brenner and other scientists and CIA operatives who worked with him all along. I would even assume that Owens and Brenner may have been in contact all this time.
- During his time as director of the operations at HNL, Owens was involved in Will's treatment and in containing the spread of TUD.
- In November 1984, during the Demodogs invasion, Owens met Eleven, who eventually closed the gate, ending TUD invasion.
- A month later, the operations at HNL were officially shut down and the lab was closed after the release of the tape recording Owens' "confession", and Owens decided to help Eleven have a normal life under Hopper's care, giving him a forged birth certificate, and recommending Hopper to "let things cool off" for a year. This, of course, was done without the knowledge of the U.S. government.
FACTONS WITHIN THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
After the events os S2, in addition to the CIA Clandestine Ops and the DOE, other different agencies were introduced in the story:
- US Army/Pentagon that briefly appears at the end of s3 (although we've seen the Military Police in the previous seasons which is a branch of the Army), and would be an antagonist faction in S4.
- FBI agents who are presented as friends of Owens and allied to our main characters in S4.

SULLIVAN'S FACTION
- At some point after the HNL was closed, Doctor Owens, in addition to his high-ranking position in the DOE, also gained some position within the U.S. Army/Pentagon, probably tasked with monitoring and maintaining security in Hawkins after the lab was closed and the military presence left town. Lieutenant Colonel Jack Sullivan was involved in this, and it's possible he and Owens worked together.
- An interesting detail is that the arm patch on Lt. Colonel Sullivan's uniform confirms that he's an United States Army Criminal Investigation Division operative, hence his associaton with the Pentagon.
- At some point (i assume 1985), rumors about Eleven being alive and receiving help from someone within the U.S. government began to surface within the Pentagon, this would affect Owens' reputation.
- It's also worth mentioning that in S4E6, Sullivan seems to imply that he knew or at least believed Brenner was alive.
Explanation two, Dr. Brenner's special little pet has gone rogue again and he and his lackeys are now seeking to cover it up. Perhaps in the hopes of selling their pet to the Soviets. — Lt. Colonel Sullivan
There's also this interview with Sherman Augustus where the interviewer asks him if Sullivan knows that Brenner is still alive, and Sherman's answer implies that Brenner being alive is something that wouldn't surprise Sullivan, Maybe because it was rumored within the Pentagon too. Basically, there's nothing that Sullivan doesn't know or expect about what's been happening in Hawkins and within the government since the events of S1.
I'm pretty sure he knows that there's certain elements... because he says in the dialogue "there's rumors that she's getting help from someone on the inside". So there is nothing that he is not, you know, equating in that situation, he's not surprised. Whatever it is, you have to be a really strong and dynamic individual to be able to go in and try to kick E.T in the butt. — Sherman Augustus

- In July 1985, Owens would find out about a foreign government invasion in Hawkins, and would go to Hawkins accompanied by Army/Pentagon forces to deal with the invasion, only to find an empty Soviet bunker.

OWENS' FACTION
- After the events in July, Owens got fired from his position in the miitary for failing his assignment to monitor security at Hawkins, i believe the previously mentioned rumors about him may also have played a role in his dismissal.
- Owens, knowing that El had lost her powers, feared a further re-emergence of the TUD, which led him to begin developing ways to restore her abilities.
- Owens would ally with Brenner to develop a way to restore Eleven's abilities, and Brenner convinced Owens that the only way to do so was via a process of re-experiencing her repressed memories in a program that they would later call NINA. It's unclear when Brenner and Owens' alliance started, but i personally believe they knew each other for longer than we initially thought, and shortly after the July events, Owens' looked for Brenner's help in order to develop a means to restore El's powers.
- Despite being fired from his position in the military, Owens was still a DOE member and also had connections to the FBI (Ellen Stinson and other agents), and he used his power to clandestinely provide Brenner with the necessary resources to establish the NINA Project. For the program to be sanctioned, he had to compromise his principles, and risk his life and that of his family. Something worth noting is that in the episode 7 script, the dialogue where Owens expresses his disappointment with NINA's progress is a little different:
I've given you all the resources you've asked for, i've given you your people, i've compromised my principles, i've risked my life, my family's life, all because you assured me this would work. That this was the only way. — Sam Owens
By "i've given you your people" we can confirm that Owens gave to Brenner his old HNL staff, who as we saw in S4E8, were loyal to him. And we can also confirm by Sam's words that he had to give Brenner resources, meaning, wherever Brenner was after the events oF S1, he was left with no resources and access to his old staff.
- Owens and Brenner would establish NINA in the same abandoned Silo in Nevada where Owens presumably locked away all the video tapes and documents from HNL.

THE FACTION CONFLICT
- After Owens' dismissal, Sullivan apparently became the responsible for monitoring Hawkins and maintaining the security in the town.
- In March 1986, a supernatural murder in Hawkins comes to Sullivan's attention, and after an autopsy is performed by Army medical doctors, Sullivan concludes that the murder was done remotely, which tied in with the rumors about Eleven being alive and getting help from someone within the U.S. government who he, and probably other operatives within the Pentagon believed was Sam Owens.
- Upon that conclusion, Sullivan would begin a clandestine military operation in order to investigate Eleven's whereabouts, and this leads him to Owens.
- Something worth noting is that when we are first introduced to Sullivan, he arrives in Indiana in an U.S. Army helicopter to investigate the circumstances of an unusual murder, but when he begins his operation to hunt down Eleven, he goes to Ruth, Nevada in an unmarked black helicopter, alluding to the fact that this is a clandestine military operation:
Sullivan arrives in Indiana
Sullivan leaves Owens' residence in Ruth, Nevada
Something interesting about the scene where Sullivan visits Owens that adds some information on what the U.S. government has been up to is the dialogue between Sullivan and Owens from this audition tape which is a bit different from the dialogue in the show,
There were no signs of an attacker. No bruises, no signs of any struggle. It's as if her attacker was a ghost. — Lt. Colonel Sullivan
So what is this, really? I mean, why are you here? all of the sudden you want to help again? — Sam Owens
Dr. Owens, 30 civilians died last year, a foreign government invaded our country all under your watch. There had to be consequences, you've got to understand that — Lt. Colonel Sullivan
Owens' question implies that Sullivan has been helping him at some point, probably in monitoring Hawkins like a mentioned before, which would explain how he knew so much about what has happened there all this years.
And Sullivan's response implies that after Owens got fired, it became his responsability to maintain security in Hawkins, which is why he was there, asking Owens Eleven's whereabouts.
- Owens refuses to tell Sullivan Eleven's whereabouts, and Jack decides to do things "the hard way", taking multiple items from Owens' house in order to investigate everything Sam has done and everyone he has spoken to in 1985 and luckily, be able to find where Eleven is.
- Owens knew that the former Indigo test subject One was back, and via a DOE intranet, he requests the immediate acceleration of NINA. He makes it clear that their secret program and facility were compromised and that the Pentagon was involved. And for the security of their program, Owens implements a communication lockdown.
- Owens uses his FBI connections to have agents help him find Eleven, maintain the secrecy of the operation and protect people closely associated with Eleven who could be found by Sullivan. Some of those agents are Ellen Stinson, who seems to be Owens' right hand, Agent Harmon, and Agent Wallace.
- In the meantime, Sullivan/the Pentagon was able to find out that Owens moved Eleven to Lenora Hills, CA, and would eventually send a group of agents/soldiers to find her.
- After finding Eleven with a group of agents and convicing her to go with him in order to get her powers back, Owens takes El to the Silo Lab while Agents Harmon and Wallace would stay with Mike, Jonathan and Will to protect them, and Agent Stinson would be closely monitoring Hawkins with 2 more agents.
- Sullivan, after a shootout in the Byers' house takes Agent Wallace to a black site to torture him in order to find out where Eleven was, and after a long time of torture, Wallace gave away Eleven's location.
- After NINA succeeded in restoring Eleven's abilities, Owens, believing she was ready, would call Stinson to have her prepare the transit from Nevada to Hawkins, Indiana through her connections at Nellis.
- Brenner would eventually betray Owens and considered killing him in order to stop Eleven from leaving the Silo Lab. After the conflict between Owens and Brenner, the Pentagon finally arrives at the location revealed by Agent Wallace and a conflict between the U.S army and the MP soldiers resulted in the death of Brenner, his men and all the scientists in the Silo Lab, except Owens.
- Eleven escapes the Pentagon with her friends, and we see Sullivan and some of his soldiers for the last time in S4, in the Nevada desert.
Episodes 8 and 9 made it clear that El still needs to hide and Sullivan's faction is still after her. It's worth mentioning that Sullivan was the only villain in ST4 not to be killed or at least injured, so it's almost certain that this guy will be back in ST5 to kick E.T's ass. Specially know that a full-scale TUD invasion is about the happen in Hawkins.

POSSIBILITIES FOR S5:
Sullivan investigates the video tapes in the silo lab
S4 ended without us knowing what happened to Owens and Sullivan after eleven escaped, but we do know that both characters are in the Silo Lab and that Sullivan now has access to a vast amount of video tapes that he would certainly investigate and this would create several different possibilities for the Pentagon's role in S5.

Sullivan's Mission in Hawkins
Sullivan is still responsible for monitoring Hawkins, and he will likely learn about what is happening in the town (which is also where El is hiding now), possibly through the military presence in Hawkins that we saw in the ST4 epilogue.
Something that caught my attention was the presence of a Research Lab vehicle on the set of down town hawkins, this vehicle never appeared in the show, and it was not mentioned in the script of episode 9. But it makes me think that at the end of S4, the Military is not just trying to help Hawkins citizen after this "federal disaster", but also researching into TUD, which perhaps is an operation led by Sullivan? let me know what you guys think.

S1 parallels
If we have Sullivan in Hawkins in S5, we most certainly will get more Government vs Eleven scenes, which would parallel Brenner and the CIA in S1. I particularly believe that S5 will have many parallels with what the Duffers planned for the first season of Montauk:
ACT THREE (episodes 7-8) will climax with characters working together to outsmart the military, venture into this alternate dimension, save Will, and, hopefully, close this "tear" once and for all.

Doctor Owens in 1959 flashbacks
Something I found extremely suspicious is that in S4, Owens seemed to know more than we initially thought...
He's claimed three victims so far, and when i saw the eyes, i knew... i knew that was him. He was him. He was sending us a message, letting us know he's back.
This sentence from Owens confirms that he somehow knew Henry's killing manner. It's plausible to assume that Owens learned about Henry and the other Indigo Numbers after being brought to the lab to "make things better". But I personally believe that there must be a greater reason why he was brought to HNL after S1, I believe Owens was already aware of the clandestine operations that had been happening in the HNL for years (at least some of it) and had known Dr. Brenner since the 1950's. I would even consider the possibility that Owens has been involved in clandestine government operations in the past and that somehow led him to find out about the HNL and Brenner's program.
In this interview by The Wrap, Ross Duffer's words about Brenner and Owens' alliance caught my attention because the way he puts it felt like Owens has known Brenner for much longer than we think.
Once that first kill with Chrissy happens, then their fears are realized and that’s what jump starts their whole storyline. I mean, that is why Owens is collaborating with Brenner, a man he also does not like. He respects him, but despises the man, because he also knows he’s the key to stopping One, to stopping Vecna. — Ross Duffer
By my suspicion, i came up with the theory/fanfic that Owens could have worked with Brenner in the 50's and was aware of what happened in the Creel House in '59. Maybe he even met young Henry and interacted with him after he woke up from his coma. If there's any chance that i'm right about it, i would imagine the Owens and Henry interactions would parallel the scenes with Owens and Will in S2.

Stinson becomes the new Owens / Her alliance with the adults
Agent Stinson was apparently Owens' right hand in S4 and also the leader among the agents of Owens' faction, being involved in the operations in Nevada, Hawkins and even being responsible for driving Hopper and Joyce to Hawkins. Imo, Stinson has the potential to become the "new Owens"/Main government operative to help our main characters while Owens is MIA. She could also send some agents to investigate what happened to Owens. I have a personal theory that Stinson will join the adults in S5 and help them on a mission to outsmart the military. And i think the "knowing nod" between Hop and Stinson in S4E9 might be a hint of a possible team up for S5.
submitted by kauan1983 to HawkinsAVclub [link] [comments]