Directions to sleepy hollow new york


2008.06.04 04:29 Fringe

"When you open your mind to the impossible, sometimes you find the truth." -WB

2013.05.11 22:03 ani625 Sleepy Hollow - Fox


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Subreddit for everything related to Hannibal, the NBC TV show.

2023.05.29 13:44 WorkingReasonable359 Best privacy and anonymity practices for day to day use?

So apologies i sound dumb im very new to all this kinda stuff but I have decided to get myself a vpn properly now to I guess mask my public IP for general day to day Web surfing and what not but from my understanding most of these VPN's are just around to collect user data. I am currently using Private Internet Access. I want to implement something that I know is not quietly scraping information out of me and something I know is secure and private. Now I don't do anything illegal but the internet is becoming a more and more hazardous place to be without some additional protection. I have looked into hosting my own VPN server on one of my raspberry pi's but this use case does not achieve what I want (masking public ip) and only allows me to access my home network when I'm away from home. I had a little bit of a search into proxies and privoxy but I don't think this will slow everything down and be a headache trying to implement additional privacy being that it is unencrypted http and being limited to an app by app basis.
I have also had a look at VPS's and its all a little bit overwhelming as there are so many different avenues to all of this but at the end of the day nothing helps quite like talking directly to people who have the knowledge that I don't have to point me in a direction I can then go and research.
Or am I just being over cautious here? Is it totally fine to just run PIA or some other VPN. If there is a service that provides more privacy and anonymity that I can self host I would be very interested
So if anyone could help me by pointing me in the right direction i would be forever grateful. I want to protect myself on my Macbook and phone when online.
submitted by WorkingReasonable359 to selfhosted [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:44 PassportSituation Miguel should win the sekai taikai

Miguel deserves the win. Of the two, miguel is the better fighter. He easily dispatches robby in every fight they're in.
Miguel looks much cooler than ribby when they fight. When I watch robby fight I'm like wtf? But when it's Miguel I'm like yeah bro. His flying tornado kick is beloved the world over.
Miguel has bigger muscles than robby. We see this demonstrated when johnny is trying to recruit girls to eagle fang and we see Miguel kissing his guns yo attract girls. I was extremely turned on in this scene.
Miguel is a nice guy. Sometimes I think robby can be a bit mean so it's good to see Miguel get the win because he's a really nice and friendly guy.
Miguel would have a better victory celebration. I picture it like this. All the cast of the show are at the encino oaks country club for a party to celebrate Miguel's victory. Miguel is really happy, everyone is having a nice normal time and nobody is being weird or awkward. Suddenly the room goes dark, only the stage is illuminated and a piano starts up. Everyone is captivated. The stage is covered in smoke and an alluring voice starts singing a rendition of 'New York, New York'. Everyone is looking at each other puzzled. They know that voice. Who emerges from the smoke? None other than John Kreese, formerly of Cobra Kai dojo, wearing a tux and looking really quite classy. The camera pans to Daniel and Amanda who have been attending the party. Until now it's been a normal night for them. Daniel turns to amanda and whispers 'what's this wise guy doing?' And she gives a half assed look of agreement. As the song goes on John Kreese starts to sing directly to amanda, looking her right in the eyes. While this happens she is wearing a sparkly cocktail dress and I must say she is looking a million dollars. John Kreese eventually starts walking towards amanda who by now is smirking very sensually at him. Daniel has his head in his hands while this is happening.
So yeah that's why I think Miguel should win the sekai taikai. Let me know what you think! Ps I promise I'm not a robby hater, I just think he's sometimes a bit mean!
submitted by PassportSituation to cobrakai [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:44 NoobFromChina RIP YaphetS (YammerS/PIS)

PIS committed suicide today and the information was confirmed by Haitao, a Chinese Dota commentator.
PIS was my hero since I started playing DotA when I was 17. His Shadow Fiend is the reason I started playing Mid.
He posted his suicide notes in Weibo and I translated them. However the images are highly compressed and I can't use image to text convertor. I have to type every single character down and translate them. I was bursted into tears when I was doing so. Please if anyone had suicidal thought, go and seek immediate help.
Australia (Beyond Blue): 1300 22 4636 (Lifeline Australia): 13 11 14
US (National Suicidal prevention lifeline): 1-800-273-TALK (8255)
Here is the translated notes:
In the main post:
This is a scheduled Weibo post. After all these years, I still can't let go of the hatred in my heart. I can't find reconciliation within myself either. I know I have wronged many people. It's all because of me, the beginning and the end. Let it end.
In the images:
I was born in a small city in Hebei in 1997, in a residential compound belonging to a typical working-class family. My father is a retired soldier who transitioned to work in China Railway (中铁), and our family settled here. My mother, originally from Hubei, came here with my sister and got married to my father through a mutual introduction. Both of them had previous failed marriages, and this one was also destined to fail. However, I was born in the second year of their marriage.
As far as I can remember, during my childhood, I mostly lived with my mother. Due to my father's work on construction sites, he was often away for long periods. This resulted in very little time spent with my father during my childhood and adolescence. Additionally, my father was introverted, had a peculiar temper, and didn't talk much with me. We would only meet once a year or sometimes every two years, so when I was very young, I kept asking my mother when my father would come back. I longed for my father's presence, but I hardly received any fatherly love or feedback.
Living in this residential compound with many children, one would expect my childhood playtime to be joyful. However, for me, it was all nightmares and pain. I distinctly remember how the adults in the compound looked at me differently when I was very young. Many parents didn't allow their children to play with me. Initially, I thought it was because our family had a poor financial condition or maybe I was a bit mischievous. It was later when I grew up that I found out the real reasons, which I will explain later. Despite the challenges, I eventually managed to integrate into the circle of children my age. Although I still faced bullying, it didn't bother me much. The most painful experiences were being bullied by the older kids, who were probably already in junior high school when I was still in kindergarten. One summer, I vividly remember coming out of my house, eating strawberries, and being noticed by the older kids. They lured me to the former staff building with their toy guns, saying they wanted me to play with them. Once there, they held me down and forced me to drink their urine while prying my mouth open. I ran back home crying and vomiting. Another time, three or four people cornered me in a corner of the compound and made me perform oral sex on them. I resisted that time and my cries attracted adults, so they let me go. Later, as I grew up, I realized that I was not the only one who was being bullied at that time. There was also a girl my age who went through unimaginable things. Moreover, many of these older kids were children of China Railway executives, born into powerful and influential families. But they were truly like beasts. I will never forget these memories.
As time passed, it was time for me to go to primary school. Due to my poor comprehension ability compared to children of the same age and my lack of concentration as a child (possibly due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), my first-grade exam results were very poor. I only remember having Chinese and mathematics as the earliest subjects. While many children achieved excellent scores, I barely passed in one subject and failed in another. When I returned home, I was scolded and beaten. That was the first time I started resisting learning from the bottom of my heart. I said I didn't understand... I hadn't learned... My mother believed that I wasn't paying attention in class. My parents themselves had a low level of education, especially my mother, who couldn't help me with my studies. Later, they spent money on tutoring, and my grades improved slightly in second and third grade..
In grades four, five, and six, there were changes in the homeroom teacher. During this time, some kids started demanding protection fees, and if you didn't pay, they would beat you up. As a result, I got into fights more frequently. I was called to the office and falsely accused of starting trouble. I was also bad at expressing myself and couldn't defend myself properly. The teacher didn't believe me, and in the end, I was the one who got beaten up and punished. The corporal punishment by teachers in the small city's school was really outrageous. They would actually hit you, slap your face, hit you with a soft pencil, or use a stick. It was during that time when my grades were already average, and I started hating studying. I didn't want to go to school anymore, I didn't want to attend classes. I started pretending to be sick and skipping classes. I completely lost interest in studying, and it was probably in sixth grade when something happened. The classroom door lock was broken, and coincidentally, I was cleaning after school. Some students were fooling around and broke the lock. Later, they went and told the teacher that I did it, and they even testified against me. The teacher didn't believe what I said, and in front of many teachers in the office, they kept hitting my palms with a soft pencil until they were all bruised, asking me to admit it quickly. It was then that I truly understood what it meant to be coerced into confession. In the end, I couldn't bear the pain anymore and admitted to it. I even bought a new lock to replace the broken one in the classroom. After that, I didn't want to go to school anymore. Some might ask why I didn't talk to my mother about it. It was because there was already a rift between us regarding my academic performance. In the eyes of my relatives and family members, I had already become a poor student and a bad child. I didn't study properly and started sneaking off to internet cafes. I didn't care anymore and didn't want to say anything to them.
After entering junior high school, in the first and second years, our physical education teacher served as the homeroom teacher. Since I hadn't laid a good foundation in elementary school, I continued to hate studying in junior high. I would disrupt classes, talk back, and get into fights. During the first two years, corporal punishment and long lectures at home accompanied my education. This period was also my rebellious phase. My father returned to work, and they would argue all day long at home, which was true. They would argue all the time, every moment of the day. The old-style building had poor sound insulation. The entire neighborhood could hear the sound of our arguments, and in addition to the school issues, I would have endless arguments with my family. On one hand, I didn't want to attend school and face punishment, and on the other hand, I didn't want to go back home. I was already feeling a bit depressed. During that time, I would skip classes, go online, play Dota, stay up all night, and sleep in school the next day. It was during this period that I learned a devastating truth, not to mention how I found out, but I discovered that I wasn't my parents' biological child. I was the illegitimate child of a relative, and to cover up their mistake, they brought in my father as a substitute and got married. I was born quickly in the second year of their marriage. That's also why, since I was young, the kids in the neighborhood would always bully me, and adults would look at me with strange eyes, including the children of many parents who initially didn't let their kids play with me. I truly broke down at that moment. It was also during that time that I developed depression, and I started hating myself and my family more and more. I really didn't want to live during that period. One day in the second semester of eighth grade, I bought sleeping pills. At that time, the control over sleeping pills wasn't as strict as it is now. I attempted suicide, but I didn't take enough, so I didn't die. Later, a teacher visited our home and conducted a home visit, asking me about the reasons. I didn't say anything. I just said I wasn't happy and that life had no meaning. The homeroom teacher was probably afraid of taking responsibility, so the attitudes of all the teachers toward me changed afterward. At the very least, they didn't bother me anymore when I slept in class. After moving up to ninth grade, aside from changing the homeroom teacher, the other subject teachers remained the same. During this time, I encountered the second great teacher in my life. The first one was Mr. Cai in the first three years of elementary school. This teacher's last name was Tian. He was our chemistry teacher, and maybe it was because of what happened in my eighth grade... As I write this, I'm finding it difficult to control my emotions. After taking over our class, he had individual conversations with each student. He was the first and only teacher who wanted to be friends with me. He always encouraged me, saying that I wasn't any worse than anyone else and that I should be confident. My depression improved a lot during my ninth grade year, and I studied diligently. However, because I had fallen so far behind before, I couldn't catch up. In the end, I didn't pass the high school entrance exam, and I left home to study in Shijiazhuang. I didn't want to continue living in that city or return to that home.
The three years of studying and living in Shijiazhuang were among the few happy times in my life. My depression rarely occurred during this period. With a completely new environment, new friends, and classmates, I actively engaged in my studies. I joined the student council and became a department head. I played basketball, exercised, and played Dota. Overall, I felt fulfilled. The only regret was that during the final stage of the semester, I had my first official romantic relationship, but it ended in betrayal. Afterward, I didn't date anyone for the next five years.
After graduation, I interned at a China Railway unit, which happened to be in Shijiazhuang. At that time, Shijiazhuang was constructing a subway, and since I studied surveying, I decided to stay. It was my first time entering the workforce, and many things shattered my preconceptions. There was hypocrisy and flattery in the workplace, colleagues engaging in office politics, data manipulation, construction companies cutting corners, and project managers having affairs behind their spouses' backs... The world turned out to be different from what I had imagined. In the first half of the year, I worked diligently, but in the latter half, I started contemplating what I really wanted to do, and my enthusiasm for work diminished. After the completion of the project I was involved in, I resigned directly. I left Shijiazhuang and became a commentator.
My depression completely erupted in mid-March 2019 when my father passed away due to illness. He had been tormented by the disease for several months and eventually succumbed to the pain. During his last few days, I stayed by his side, watching him and reflecting on his two failed marriages and the mistreatment he endured at his workplace, only to be plagued by the disease until his death. After the funeral, in April, I returned to my rented house in Shanghai. During that time, I would spend the entire night talking to myself in the house, painfully banging my head against the wall. Every day, when I looked into the mirror, I felt an intense disgust towards the person I saw. As I grew older, I resembled my biological father more and more, and I couldn't even count how many times I had hurt myself in front of the mirror. This state of mind persisted until recently, where I would only take a bite of food every two or three days, experiencing headaches and various sleep disturbances. Sometimes, I would even have uncontrollable fits of laughter and engage in self-talk. I'm really not doing well.
In recent years, I have started squandering money to fill the emptiness in my heart. I can't find meaning in life, and I can't reconcile with my past either. Many people have told me that it's not my fault, that I shouldn't blame myself for the mistakes of others, and that I should live my own life. You could also say that this is my way of escaping from reality, that I'm a weak and useless person. Well, so be it. Without me, this family that should never have existed wouldn't have come into being. There wouldn't have been so many things that should or shouldn't have happened. This family emerged because of me, and today I will end it by taking my own life. Everything from the beginning has been wrong, and I hope this mistake can be corrected now. My inner pain can finally come to an end. Today, when I leave, I will leave with a smile. Every second in this world, many people are born and die. Without me, the world won't be lacking anything. I don't want to come to this earthly realm again in my next life, and I hope that in the future, you won't create a tragic family for the sake of your own selfish desires or to cover up your own mistakes.
Please forgive my selfishness and cowardice, and please forgive my pain and struggles. Goodbye.
submitted by NoobFromChina to DotA2 [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:40 forestsilver [04/06/2023] Brockley Max Festival

Would anybody like to check out the Brockley Max Festival together in the coming couple of weeks?
It's a community festival that's around a lot of different venues across Brockley, Ladywell, Crofton Park, and Honour Oak.
I'm looking at the following gigs on the 4th, 8th, and 10th.
It's all free!

Garden Session with The Firkin Jazz Band The Fox & Firkin, June 4, 3PM - 6PM The Fox & Firkin's bespoke big band evokes summery vibes in the Fox's urban tropical yard (aka big back garden). This collective of local professional jazz musicians has performed with everyone from Quincy Jones and Dionne Warwick to The BBC Big Band, Blur and Florence and the Machine.
Honouring the Oak The Honour Oak, June 8, 8PM - 10:30PM Deptford Wives bring a New York-style to classic soul and blues covers while The PGs trio defy easy pigeon-holing with an exploratory, light-hearted approach to song arrangements.
Two Spoons Presents Bethany Kate Two Spoons Cafe-Bar, June 10, 7:30PM - 9:30PM From romantic standards to smoky blues numbers, award-winning jazz artist Bethany Kate's smooth vocals and guitarist Sebastian Knee-Wright transcend life's hustle.

submitted by forestsilver to LondonSocialClub [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:39 Johnny_Boy398 Africa Rework: The Leopard of the Congo Mobutu Sese Seko

Africa Rework: The Leopard of the Congo Mobutu Sese Seko
(This is part of an ongoing series, links to which will be posted in the comments below)
The Nationalists of the “Mouvement Authenticité de la Révolution” (MAR)
Who is Mobutu Sese Seko? Just another warlord who got a lucky break? A champion of the nation willing to do what is necessary for unity and freedom? A traitor to the people who was happy to crack congolese heads until his pay got cut? A revolutionary Father-Marshal or a reactionary kleptocrat? No one can say for sure, but when the Congo war begins in 1966 it will become clear what he wishes himself to be: the great liberator, unifyer, and undisputed master of the great Congo nation. And with Japanese help he may just pull it off. But no man is born great, and even the Fuhrer does not rule alone. So let us discover how Mobutu came to be, and what his victory will mean for the Congo and Africa at large.
For the Japanese, who will become his greatest supporters and headaches, he is the African Oda Nobunaga: a martial and cruel man whose vision for unity and glory far outweighs whatever sins he may have committed. Always one for the cameras and adept at winning over an audience, Mobutu will successfully win over the Japanese public by playing the role of the justly tyrannical “Great Man”, even while he personally prefers western delicacies.
Joseph-Désiré Mobutu lived an unremarkable life before being thrust into greatness. He was only 16 when the Congo was violently transferred from Belgian to German hands, and like many rebellious students he joined in the 1949 protests against the construction of the Congo dam, stowing away from boarding school to do so. In the aftermath of the MNC repression Mobutu was assigned to the still technically Belgian controlled Force Publique as punishment. Unlike many of his fellows however Mobutu immediately took to military life, embracing the strength, discipline and martial values it provided. In part because of this he served without noticeable disobedience, and was even bribed to be an informant on clandestine communist cells within the force, ratting out a few of his “comrades”. From the point of view of the Belgians he was a model soldier. But this was an act: in truth Mobutu never ceased holding resentment for his arrogant Belgian commanders or the priests who had “educated” him. Behind their back he was a contributor to the native underground press, writing under assumed names and attacking the Belgian presence. It came as quite a shock then when in 1955, as his mandated time in the force was drawing to a close, Mobutu did not accept demobilization quietly but instead went into revolt. It is still a matter of debate about what pushed him into this. He claims that this had been the plan all along, while cynics say the impending annexation of the belgian Congo by Zentralafrika forced him into it. Some think that his double life was about to be exposed, while the more conspiratorial leftists say that he never went into rebellion at all, and that his “revolt” was ordered by the Belgians as a way to counter the APL insurgency. But whatever the case it was here that the public figure was born.
After killing several belgian officers and stealing as many weapons and valuables as they could Mobutu and his co-conspirators quickly fled east. This was not entirely unusual: the sudden annexation of the colony led to many sporadic demonstrations and revolts. But it immediately became clear that Mobutu had larger ambitions than these local disturbances. His strategy at this time was one of survival: he would only accept those who could move fast and hit hard, with his armed band always staying on the move as they fled to the east. But unlike other petty warlords he understood the importance of a political and social message for his long term survival, as well as local alliances. For this he essentially copied the platform of the now underground MNC while adhering to none of its tenants in reality: he would tell the people whatever they wanted to hear so long as it got him what he wanted. More practically he made tight alliances with local eastern notables as well as Tutsi refugees which had fled reprisals to the east. In this he was successful, forging for himself a loose alliance in the north east which permitted him to slip the noose where so many others were eventually caught.
One of his most important lieutenants in these early days was Victor Nendaka Bika, his de facto “foreign minister” and torturer who would make initial contact with those Mobutu saw the need to coerce or charm. Unlike many warlords Mobutu never gave into the temptation to rule by fear alone, instead seeking to co-opt useful men into his own organization. But he was just as happy to let loose his jackal to show the consequences of disloyalty.
These early years from 1956-1962 were defined at first by mere survival: banditry, illegal trade and bribery were the only ways to stay alive. But slowly, with plenty of self promotion to help it, Mobutu’s reputation as a survivor and a winner grew locally, and then regionally. As the remnants of failed rebels and warlords drifted into his growing camp Mobutu was able to step beyond being a bandit king and into becoming a local powerbroker. He had already made himself the allied protector of the Tutsi refugees, and soon after the APL’s protracted people's war in the north began he sought to become the patron of his own native Ngbandi people as well. Where he had the most power in the eastern fringes the pan-Africanist APL held the north, with the Ngbandi in the middle still “up for grabs” between the APL, Mobutu and the German administration. It is here that he first developed his own separate political platform: unwilling or unable to come to an agreement with either of the other two factions Mobutu began developing his own ideology of an “authentic” congolese nationalism which was opposed to both pan-african and communist radicalism, “self defeating” regionalism and demanded the full liberation of the congo from european imperialism. But most importantly to those who heard his call was for unity under Mobutu: if the African people remained divided and timid they would be slaves forever, and only a great leader like Mobutu could bring them true liberty. As one may expect, this call for subordination won him very few new friends.
The see-saw of influence in the Congo north and east is set to be radically upended in 1962, as kommissar Krogmann finally thinks he has enough stability in the west to launch a pacification campaign. In this he will be superficially successful: all anti-German factions will be forced to retreat and large swaths of land will be returned to German control. But it will not accomplish its primary objective of capturing and killing the leadership: Mobutu will once again avoid the hangman and will return when the Zentralafrika army goes marching south to the SAW. And when he does it will be with a new purpose. Much of his army was scattered or deserted by the German offensive, with many of the local allies he thought were in his hands all but begging to come to terms with the Germans after he was forced out. He had survived yes, but only by the skin of his teeth: this time he would do things differently. Taking lessons from the APL he will return in 1964 as a popular revolutionary rather than as a mere warlord with a printing press. Though still not fully developed it is here that “Joseph-Désiré” would become “Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga” or “The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, goes from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake”. A new ideology of “Authentic” nationalism came with this new name, seeking to truly win over the hearts of the people as well as the loyalty of their leaders. It was a threat and a promise, as he would go about tearing down symbols of westernism in his wake and giving personal “gifts” to people or organizations which he wished to win over. He also sought to portray himself as an avenging angel, throwing “bad actors” such as denounced priests and hated collaborators against the wall.
This new ideology, disseminated through the “Manifesto of Goma” is long in emotion and short in concrete policy. As such it was quickly denounced by the intellectuals of the Pan-Africanists and Liberals as not a “real” ideology and merely a cheap populism. But it is taken deadly seriously by the newly declared Mouvement Authenticité de la Révolution: for its supporters it promises a true rebirth of the congolese people from within rather than without. The Congo would be purged of malignant western influence by remaking the congolese individual in body, mind and spirit. This was the way to true freedom and dignity, far more than mere “material conditions” or to ape their constitutions.
With his newfound identity and strategy Mobutu will of course be a prime target for Huttig’s retribution, but as is always the case too few men and not enough supplies will stop Huttig from ever putting him down for good. Plus Mobutu had found a new friend: the Japanese. In the immediate aftermath of Huttig’s takeover the Japanese will support the APL, but will quickly grow disenchanted: the naked radicalism and distrustful nature of the APL will lead to the Japanese looking for a more reliable partner, and Mobutu will aggressively angle to become just that. After having been rejected by the Americans in favor of the MNC Mobutu is the only big game left in the Congo for Japan to back, and was always a master at co-option and personal magnetism. He will charm the Japanese mission to sing his praises in Tokyo, even if there is little they can do for him at the moment. This will change when Huttig dies: taking a gamble Mobutu will strike at Stanleyville, successfully forcing the retreating garrison to leave behind most of their weapons and capturing an airport through which he will finally have solid connections with the outside world. The bad blood between him and the MNC and APL will mean that there is no choice but to fight it out as the Congo war begins in 1966, this time with Japan backing him to the hilt.
Mobutu now seeks to become a legend. Already having gained a personal mythos after having been declared dead by the Germans several times, his wartime strategy will be to force the mass mobilization of the population. Under his personal name and with the backing of Japan he will force every man who comes under his control into his army, seeking to form a tidal wave of men which will overwhelm his enemies and make up for his lack of supply. If an enemy cannot be rooted out with simple force of numbers, it will be the job of his all Ngbandi “Leopard Division” or even better of Japanese “volunteers” to root them out. The success of this strategy is heavily dependent on momentum, and will rely on Japanese backing to arm itself. But if it is successful Zentralafrika will be no more, and neither will the Congo: The Republic of Zaire will rise as the newest power in Africa under the leadership of the nation's great guide: Mobutu Sese Seko. After a partial demobilization and a reconfirming of his alliance with “internal allies” such as the Tutsi under François Rukeba and the Bakongo under Holden Roberto he will initiate a grand campaign of national revolution and self aggrandizement: Zairianization.
Asian inspired architecture of the newly built Presidential Palace. Among those celebrating the creation of Zaire will be the Japanese. All sides have poured a great deal of resources into the conflict, and the victory of Mobutu will doubtless be a strategic boon for Japanese influence on the continent. Mobutu for his part recognizes the usefulness of his new “friends”, but neither side is blinded by the propaganda: the dangers and opportunities of Nationalism are all too familiar.
As mentioned in my previous post there are several common issues which any native unifyer must account for. The first among these is The Looming Famine: in the aftermath of years of war and mismanagement the supply of food to urban areas is critically unstable. And it is in this issue that the weaknesses of Mobutu’s regime will first be seen. Mobutu’s agricultural reform centers mostly on seizing land owned by the whites and his political enemies, and then redistributing it to himself, his political allies, and occasionally to the people. As everything with the Zairean revolution the purpose is twofold: to meet the needs of the people and to entrench Mobutu's personal political power. But often the second goal far outstrips the first: many of the people who gain this land do not know how to use the land productively, or if they do, are more interested in producing cash crops than they are in food staples. This is certainly the case for the massive amounts of land brought under Mobutu’s personal ownership, which will most often continue to grow the same way as the colonial plantations they were before. This reckless reorganization and focus on exports ensure that hunger will be an early and acute crisis for Zaire. The issue will be solved slowly, as roads are repaired and the rhythm of agricultural life is no longer disrupted by war, but the people need food now and more than anything else it is cassava and rice which the people demand from their leaders.
It is by meeting this need that Japanese influence first becomes a powerful thing. Though motivated in part by genuine charity from well off Asians, the provision of food and aid is also cynically used by the Japanese state to buy the support of the people and the local power brokers away from Mobutu, and towards themselves. This aid, plus the government's own subsidies of food imports, plus the natural healing from war, will lead to the crisis fading away but leaving all sides on notice that the future of Zaire is still being made, and that the Japanese are a major player in it.
The Mutilated Independence: The inability of Mobutu to take Leopoldville during the independence war is a blow to Mobutu’s prestige, not to mention Zaire as a whole. However he is pragmatic enough and has enough friends in Japan to hash out a deal with Nigeria and Gabon: the loss of the major port will not strangle Congolese exports or imports, only make them more expensive. But for both political and economic reasons the retaking of Leopoldville and the Kabinda port remain absolutely vital to the continued reign of Mobutu. To this end Mobutu’s solution to retaking Leopoldville is direct conquest, not because he can think of no other option but because it will give him the greatest personal prestige as a great conqueror. As such along with his policy of “Zairianization” and economic consolidation he will also invest a great deal into the army.
This army will see its strength tested as Mobutu tries to expand his influence beyond the Zaireian borders. Gabon may be protected by America, but unleashing blitz style attacks on Angola and Rwanda is fair game. In Angola he will seek to set up Holden Roberto as a fellow autocratic “Authenticité” leader by supporting his meager army against the warring angolan factions in an attempted knockout blow. In Rwanda he will need to be somewhat more cautious (unless something very bad happens) but ultimately seeks to return Kigeli V to the throne on the backs of his long time exile allies. In this way he will both expand his influence as well as surround Leopoldville with friendly regimes. When the oil crisis hits Mobutu will leap at the opportunity to crush the Germans by launching an all out assault on “Festung Leopoldville”, and if successful will greatly increase his prestige, as well as rehabilitate his image in the eyes of other revolutionary leaders as a “true revolutionary”. If he fails in these wars however he will decline, and need to lean ever more heavily on Japan to prop himself up. This is somewhat awkward for Japan itself: having previously backed leftist movements as their best options they must now choose between their old allies and the new anti-leftist gambles taken by Mobutu. But despite the heartburn Zaire is simply too valuable in the african chaos for Japan to not continue supporting it, and so the rising sun shall backstab their allies in the name of pragmatism to the benefit of Mobutu. And besides, these new factions typically promess a better deal than the socialists did.
Mobutu walks a fine line in African politics: though he has denounced the APL’s brand of pan-africanism he also wishes to be seen as a great revolutionary. Surrounded as he is by pan-african or otherwise revolutionary movements it is only good sense to say you are one of them. And to many Mobutu is just that: a liberating revolutionary who both freed and united great swaths of africa from pernicious white influence. But for the wider Marxist inspired world of African liberation his clear anti-communist is difficult to accept, no matter how well he speaks the language of pan-african pride.
Lingering Regionalism: In this question Mobutu is the most radical, and his policy is what you may know him for OTL. While all revolutionaries desire to establish a united identity, and some of them will do so by autocratic centralization, Mobutu makes the establishment of a “true” Zaireian nation a core part of his rule. As established in the Manifesto of Goma Mobutu promesses a national revolution in which regionalism will be swept away by a new, authentic program of nation building which will decolonize the Congolese mind as well as their hands. In practical terms this means the creation of a totalitarian state which will regulate and make “african” all aspects of life. Western influence will be attacked via the banning of christian names and nationalizing catholic church property. A citizen dress code will be implemented as well as a “traditional” family code which will favor male-dominated polygamy and property laws. Though his own praetorian guard of the leopard division is tribally biased the army as a whole will have a new organization forbidding any unit to be more than 20% uniform in tribal origin. This campaign is carried out with special zeal against the influence of Catholicism. Seeing it as both a challenge to his own power and as a malignant foreign influence Mobutu will make a great show of putting priests on trial and instructing his followers to declare that Mubutu is like Jesus and the MAR like the church. Schools, previously run almost exclusively by religious organizations, will be nationalized and their curriculum no longer permitted to teach Christianity but instead to teach “Mobutuism”. Though he will not have the strength needed to wipe out the church entirely during the 60s or early 70s Mobutu will be able to effectively cow this institution and dare any priest to say “sacrilege”.
This campaign will provide a degree of unity, pride and self confidence to the shattered nation beyond what any other program could do, but it is all provided through the image of Mobutu as the great sun king of the new nation. Mobutu will seek to become the center of a pseudo-religious cult of personality with mass public celebrations of his figure following him wherever he goes and an entourage singing songs in his praise.
A consequence of the personalism in this campaign is than any embarrassing failures will not only reflect poorly on the nation but on Mobutu himself. As such he will often get worked up by seemingly trivial matters: if the football team should be lucky enough to participate in the world cup they will do so under the threat that if they do not perform well enough it will see retribution on them at home.
But as part of building this cult he must never let any other person, even his own children, get a moment in the spotlight. Below him is transient chaos, while above him is none: he alone is the rock on which Zaire can be built. This policy is most clearly seen in his handling of the Warlord Plague. Here Mobutu has a two sided policy: All those military figures which he believes could pose a threat to his rule will at first be executed publicly and brutally. In the opening months of his reign he will institute a mini reign of terror to make an example of many warlords and political enemies. However, once the example has been made he will move on to a policy of co-opting these same men. Often through direct bribery, or through positions of prestige and other perks, local strongmen who will accept his rule are brought into the state machine by promising the opportunity to profit in exchange for loyalty. This opportunity is often revoked without notice or reason and personal rivalry at the top is encouraged: in this way no other individual is able to form a stable powerbase. But at the same time individuals previously kicked out of power may be rehabilitated just as quickly, rising once again to wealth and prestige on the auspices of Mobutu’s favor. In this way no elite is a permanent outsider, and the best move for many will seem to be “wait and see”. This of course makes the internal administration of the nation hell, but it does keep Mobutu in undisputed power without even the glimmer of a rival.
This policy of personal co-option extends even to The Belgian Question. The Europeans remaining property will be nationalized and they will be deported, but it will not come with the punitive brutality of the pan-africanists. Mobutu has no love for the Belgians, and will not tolerate their continued dominance, but he also has no special hatred for them, seeing them mostly as political liabilities and rivals rather than ideology defining enemies: that distinction goes to the Germans. But after this show of nationalistic force the door will be left open to their return: many of the nationalized properties are redistributed to those without the knowledge, skill or desire to maintain their productivity. As such when those same Europeans are offered the chance to buy back their property or even return to the Congo Mobutu will not get in their way: so long as they avoid getting lynched along the way by Mobutu’s notoriously brutal and poorly disciplined soldiers he will let them have their piece too so long as they accept that it is by his grace alone that they keep it.
Part of this leniency is out of a calculated mercy to Europeans: Mobutu is smart enough to know that making himself solely reliant on Japan is a poor strategy, and will seek to make connections with America, Italy and Brazil. Having mercy on the Belgians and keeping the door open to cooperation with the Euros is an easy way to mollify western opinion and thus maintain his own independence on the world stage. Of course even this policy has limits: Germany and those under her will see the door slammed shut.
Which brings us neatly into the great struggle which defines the early Mobutu regime: addressing the Economic Devastation. In keeping with his Authenticité program Mobutu wishes to nationalize all previously foreign owned industry, which is the vast majority of all industry, under the one-party state. These national corporations, modeled off of the Japanese Zaibatsu and Italian corporatism, will be either controlled directly by Mobutu, by his close political allies, or (to his own displeasure) by East Asians, most often the Japanese. Mobutu’s Japanese backers are willing to prop up his regime, to allow whatever social and political organization he wishes, but they have come to the Congo for a reason. That reason is money and resources, and with Authenticité pushing for the cartelization of all money in the Congo the Japanese demand to be let in. Mobutu cannot simply dismiss them: it is Japanese credit and weapons which ensure he stays secure and on top. But he is also unwilling to simply roll over for them: he is a nationalist and a deeply ambitious man, and will not be satisfied with anything less than personal ownership of the Zaire economy. As such the 60s and early 70s will be a contest between true Mobutu loyalists and pro-Japanese opportunists for who will gain a majority share of the new nation's economic resources. Japan offers cash, guns, food, technical advisors and diplomatic support (all of which Zaire really needs) in return for shares in the national corporations and local extractions. They will also play dirty by employing bribes, intimidation tactics, organized crime and even clandestine support of anti-mobutu civil resistance to put pressure on the regime to open up more space for the Japanese. To counter this Mobutu has all the tools of the state at his disposal, as well as the mobilization of his own hard core group of supporters for intimidation or political pressure on local leaders.
“Kazi ndjo baba, ndjo mama” (work, it is my father, it is my mother), is a common phrase in Katanga which alludes to the paternalist role played by large companies such as the Union Minière, which would provide housing, education, and sometimes even wives to their workers in exchange for productive loyalty. Even after the full German takeover “company work” maintained a facade of this relationship. Japan is well positioned to take up the old Union Minière paternalism tactics, offering workers higher and more regular pay than what native organizations sometimes can, while also reinforcing a culture of dependency which Mobutu is trying to break (or bend to his own ends).
It is this contest for the hard cash and rare metals provided by the Congo which will determine the final form the Authenticité regime takes. If Mobutu is victorious and secures the lion's share of the economy for himself and a large enough share for his allies the Zairean Revolution will be complete with major bonuses to stability and political power, and even more importantly to Mobutu’s personal fortune. Though never giving public access to his personal books Mobutu will be plausibly rumored to be worth billions, with he and his family being some of the foremost african business people in the world and minor celebrities in the co-prosperity sphere. However the economy will suffer greatly from this as all economic efficiency and business skill has been sacrificed in the name of Mobutu’s personal power: though he is the undisputed master of Zaire it will be a deeply dysfunctional country economically, and if commodity prices were to fall he may need to go crawling back to the outside world to bail him out. On the other hand if Japan wins Zaire will become a neo-colonial strip, with its most lucrative industries owned in part or in full by the Japanese and the state unable to do anything about it without critically undermining its own elite support. This will make Mobutu into only a multi-millionaire rather than a billionaire, as well as undermine his public image of all powerful invincibility. With the Japanese ambassador keeping a hawkish eye on him and his party Mobutu will be left to stew in his unhappy lot knowing that if he ceases to play the part assigned to him the Japanese can always find someone else. This will also be the end of the Authentice campaign as even uneducated workers can see that their bread comes not from “Father Marshal” but from their places of work, owned by foreigners once again. But it is arguably better economically, as the extractive industries are at least run competently and its workers will be paid in full and on time more often. In all cases Zaire will be a sphere observer, but in this case it will be a part of the Japanese economic sphere as well. The later 70s and 80s will be difficult times for either end as prices crash and the cumulative effects of bad government and foreign domination come to the fore. But that is a story for another day.
Japan or Mobutu, success or failure, unity or farce, one thing remains constant: the Zairean military officers are the new nobility of the new nation. Corruption is an endemic and potentially crippling issue in Zaire, and this is seen most clearly in the military, where officers will steal wages and army units will act close to bandits in the more remote regions, creating an atmosphere of fear. But the best position is that of an Air Force officer, with prominent families often paying through the nose for their sons to be educated in Japanese military academies to earn their wings.
submitted by Johnny_Boy398 to TNOmod [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:36 Riser_17 im so sad we got a trailer ...

... because now the funniest and best era of this subbreddit is over, i really enjoyed the shitpost memes with that photo of the 2 spiderman,
now we are back to talk about petty things like his face, what suits have to be in the new game, and new york was already in the last game, and just the usual gamer tantrum i see on most subreddits
thank you coming to my rant, its nothing too serious dont need to take these words personal, i dont really have a problem with this subreddit, actually i have a problem with gamers takes and views on things in general, but i made peace with it, i hope.
submitted by Riser_17 to SpidermanPS4 [link] [comments]

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submitted by versacehvacinc to u/versacehvacinc [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:35 leafEaterII Seeking Advice: Tackling a Backend Application Project with Unfamiliar Frameworks and Limited Experience

Hi everyone,
I just joined a new company last week and I will be working on building a backend application which is way behind schedule. I dont have a lot of experience with the frameworks used in the project (serverless architecture, python, fast api, aws lambda, kinesis, SQS, S3 and PostgreSQL ) and I am expected to drive the deployment of the application to staging and test it there. I have a background in Python and a little bit of FastAPI and nothing else. I understand that I might be under qualified for the role. I have spent time trying to learn each of these frameworks/technologies but I am all over the place and am no closer to understanding the full architecture than I was 4 days ago. I understand the flow of the python part and nothing else. I want to ask you how I can tackle this project and understand it to a point where I can lead the development outright. I am eager to learn but I lack the direction.
How should I go about learning these frameworks? Is there an order in which I should tackle these unknowns? I want to understand the entire flow of the application and I want to as efficient as possible during my on-boarding process.
submitted by leafEaterII to webdev [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:35 Marilynnnn On This Memorial Day

Happy Memorial Day to all of my friends over the pond. Our love is also always with the Purple Heart families whose searing pain must always feel like just yesterday.
My husband and I always felt Memorial Day is a most curious holiday. As we remember the fallen and express our deepest gratitude for their ultimate sacrifices, we celebrate with food, fun, and family.
But maybe this custom is understandable. I've shared in the past about the emerging field of epigenetics which examines how great trauma can leave altered genetic responses in its wake. It appears that great joy is one of the ways that genetic health can be restored after immense trauma. So beer and barbecue on this day does make sense.
Our Sam passed away two months ago. The family picked up and relocated ourselves to be temporarily near our son and his family. They live in the outskirts of a large American Air Force base in Germany. We constantly see military planes in the sky piloted by brave men and women. The flights are constant reminders that Memorial Day will be in the future as well as in the present and past.
One of our prized possessions is a journal of clippings that Sam maintained. An article had to pass a tough audition to get in; Sam merited only the most seminal of articles with The Clip-and-Paste.
Only a few of the selected elite received the most honored "Dog Ear" treatment-- The Very Best of the Best. One of them, a New York Times editorial, was written on the Memorial Day following 9/11. In the aftermath of that terrible day and the consequent invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, the authors talk about the preciousness of freedom once it is challenged and how this day represents an opportunity to reflect how we can practically strengthen it.
Today is a day to think about enlarging each of our lives, about the freedoms we omit or neglect, the freedoms we forget or refuse to grant each other. It's a good day to renew the sense of possibility. We live in a free country largely thanks to the men and women who now lie beyond the reach of possibility. They preserved it in principle. It is our job to preserve it in practice.
Let's all use this day to soar "beyond the reach of possibility."
submitted by Marilynnnn to SGIWhistleblowersMITA [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:34 theXchang3 In honor of Asian American Heritage month, I created a video documentary of the first Asian player to play in the National Hockey League! On March 15th, 1948, the first hockey player of Asian descent made their debut in the NHL! His name was Larry Kwong & debuted for the New York Rangers!

In honor of Asian American Heritage month, I created a video documentary of the first Asian player to play in the National Hockey League! On March 15th, 1948, the first hockey player of Asian descent made their debut in the NHL! His name was Larry Kwong & debuted for the New York Rangers! submitted by theXchang3 to asian [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:34 rhubarbjin [Silicon Curtain] Oliver Bullough - Russian Money in London Permeated its Service Sector & Secured Political Influence

This channel holds podcast-style interviews with various experts on various topics -- but this one struck me as especially Kraut-like in its analysis. The interviewee describes how the British financial system (unwittingly) enabled the deterioration of Russian society and continues to (unwittingly) obstruct democratic development around the world.
I recommend watching the whole thing. To entice you, I've transcribed some juicy quotes below.
[2:56] [Londongrad] is a catchy term [but] I do have a slight problem with it, because it stresses the role London plays in laundering money for the former Soviet Union when actually London is not nearly so specialized in the service it offers. [...] It launders money from absolutely anywhere. In fact, the money from Russia or Eastern Europe is a relatively small subset of the money that pours through the City of London.
[5:20] When communism ended in Russia in 1991, a reforming government came to power. Boris Yeltsin was then president, and appeared to be (in his erratic way) sincerely committed to build a new system. [...] A particular concern of the government at the time was: how do you prevent the Communists coming back to power in the next election? How do you establish democracy irreversibly? They had a plan: [...] use private property as the tool to build democracy in Russia. [...] If they could establish a class of property owners, those property owners would then demand protection from the courts to prevent it being taken away [then] they would demand laws in those courts and then they would demand that those laws be created in a fair manner, which would require a functioning legislature, which required functioning elections, and that required all the paraphernalia around elections. So, in this way, there is a logical chain which leads from "rapid privatization" to "free and fair elections".
[8:32] The problem with this plan is that it never had the chance of being implemented [because] the winners from the very early privatization auctions -- the people who got very rich in the 1990s -- managed to take the money out of Russia and putting it into London. So they didn't need rule of law in Russia, they didn't need democratic elections, they didn't need free and fair courts... because they could buy all that in London. [...] Instead of the oligarchs (as we now call them) being a temporary problem -- a necessary evil for building democracy and freedom in Russia -- they became [...] a colonizing class in their own country.
[10:14] London wasn't alone in the 1990s. Much of this money also flowed to Switzerland and New York, but in both of those cases there were serious investigations [...] which helped to limit the money flow. There was no equivalent in London.
[10:56] This has created a form of political economy which is unique among large countries, where [...] more than half of national wealth is housed outside Russia. The equivalent for European countries is about 10% and in the United States it's 5 or 4. Fifty-one percent of national wealth is outside Russia.
[12:03] That's kind of our fault. [...] How did Putin build the kleptocratic system, how did the oligarchs manage to steal everything? Because we helped them. We provided the legal services, the accounting services, we sold them property, we educated their children, we sold them fine art, we kept their superyachts, we provided them with taxation systems, we sold them golden visas, we helped them sue journalists who tried to write the truth about all this.
[13:36] We are stepping in to try and help the Ukrainians solve a problem that we caused.
[15:30] I've never got any sense that this was a deliberate policy. It's something that was profitable, and therefore no one was in the mood to ask too many questions. [...] There was a self-serving ideology -- which is not uniquely British, we see the same in Germany and other European countries -- that by trading with the Russians we would be civilizing them. [...] The idea that "what I want to do anyway, which is make money from these people, is not just good for me but good for everybody" is an incredibly convenient philosophy.
[21:25] There was an astonishing alliance between the Soviet Union -- specifically, its state bank Moscow Narodny Bank which was based in London -- and the Midland Bank [...] This was in the 1950s: the MNB decided to lend its dollars to Midland Bank and thereby discovered that if you use dollars in London, all the restrictions disappeared. [...] Before too long, it wasn't just Midland Bank doing it, but all the London banks, then other banks opened branches too: American banks, German, Japanese, French and so on. This was the birth of offshore finance [...] liberating the wealthy from the control of the rest of us.
[25:43] This willingness to profit from anybody is at the core of the reinvention of London from the capital of the British Empire to the capital of the Offshore Empire. That's why I refer to them as "butlers to the world".
[28:17] It's very difficult to pin down precise numbers, but it's clear that Russia is more unequal than it was on the eve of the first world war. The oligarchs now have a greater proportion of wealth than the aristocrats did under the tsar.
[30:46] There was a sense in Russia that the Europeans were incapable of uniting against the Russian threat, so it came as a shock in Feb '22 when that's precisely what happened. The UK, the EU, the US, Canada, Australia, Japan [...] paralyzed the mechanisms by which Russian oligarchs operated [...] so they've been seeking new mechanisms to get their money out of Russia. [...] Turkey has stepped in, and of course Dubai, which has a perpetual role in helping corrupt people get money out of their home countries.
[32:02] But that is only because of sanctions, and sanctions are a foreign policy tool. [...] There hasn't been in the UK -- or any other European country -- an adequate law enforcement response. [...] There's been a little work in the US and Canada, but very little done in this country, and that's a result of [our] disastrously underfunded law enforcement agencies.
[37:34] Ukraine, as people ceaselessly remind you, was (and probably is, in many ways) as corrupt as Russia [...] but what it doesn't have is a pyramid of corruption with one person at the top [...] Instead you have multiple warring clans [...] and in the cracks between these clans a civil society was able to appear in Ukraine. [...] In this pluralistic corruption, Ukraine was able to build this vibrant, powerful, horizontally organized society which is very different from the vertically organized Russian society.
[45:33] How do you de-radicalize someone like Putin? [...] I think that the only solution now is for him to lose, and sadly that will involve tens of thousands of young men's lives [...] because of the system that the oligarchs allowed him to create and the system that we in the UK allowed them to create. [...] That is a serious thing that we need to recognize and address, because [...] all the other kleptocrats are still bringing their wealth here: Chinese, Malaysian, Nigerian, whatever, it flows here uninterrupted. [...] This is an opportunity for us to examine what we've done [...] and make sure it never happens again.
[48:00] London as an offshore market is unrivaled. [...] You can get private school for your children in Switzerland, you can build opaque corporate structures in Dubai, but everything together in one place, the world-class financial system, the world-class legal system, a generous tax system, a huge art and luxury goods market, coupled with a network of tax havens -- no one else comes close. If London stopped being a center for kleptocratic wealth, it would destroy the global money-laundering system.
[52:04] Economics is not maths. You don't have to agree to it. The reason R has been greater than G over the centuries is because the rich have been able to capture politics. [...] We can fight back against that.
submitted by rhubarbjin to kraut [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:33 greece666 Discussion of "The Battle of Algiers"

"The Battle of Algiers" is a critically acclaimed faux documentary inspired by “cinéma vérité” and directed by Gillo Pontecorvo. Released in 1966, it depicts a crucial phase in the Algerian War of Independence (1954-7). The film portrays events such as the FLN's (Front de Libération Nationale) bombings, assassinations, and the French military's efforts to suppress the insurgency.
The film received the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival in 1966 and was nominated for three Oscars (Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Foreign Language Film). Over the years, it has continued to earn accolades, including being listed among the greatest films of all time by publications such as Sight & Sound and The New York Times. Edward Said famously claimed that “The Battle of Algiers” and “Queimada” (1969), Pontecorvo's next film, were the two greatest political films ever made. They indubitably paved the way for films such as Costa-Gavras “Z” and Theo Angelopoulos’s “Days of “36”.
The film was released a mere four years after the end of the Algerian War of Independence; it immediately became a subject of fierce controversy in France. The French government, under the conservative President Charles de Gaulle, was not supportive of the film due to its critical portrayal of French colonialism; as a result when Pontecorvo won the Golden Lion in Venice, the French delegation left in protest and the film was not screened in France until 1971. Even then, death threats by nationalists deterred cinema owners, and it was only through pressure from Louis Malle and other intellectuals that the film was eventually shown in French cinema.
The film portrays the profound repercussions that arise from challenging popular will through colonial means, such as military force and institutional discrimination. "The Battle of Algiers" emerges directly from the liberation movement it vividly captures. Following Algeria's independence in 1962, former fedayee (guerrilla) and captive of the French, Saadi Yaceft, approached Pontecorvo to adapt his memoirs into a film. The authenticity of the film’s foundation helped it to exude a striking realism rarely seen in political movies. The film's mournful tone and journalistic approach enabled Pontecorvo to reconstruct events on a grand scale, capturing the essence of the urban landscape of Algiers while also depicting intimate moments of ordinary people.
What adds to the power of the film is its ability to maintain a balanced and impassioned perspective by addressing the concerns of both sides of the war. The French colonel, who himself fought against the Nazis during the resistance, wonders why some intellectuals and the artists of France side with the Algerian rebels. However, there was a time when the colonel did not have to question why the Germans were unwelcome in his own country.
In Pontecorvo’s own words: "So many critics see “The Battle of Algiers” as propaganda, but in the scenes of death, the same religious music accompanies both the French and Arab bombings. I am on the side of the Arabs, but I feel compassion for the French even if historically they were at fault. I do not say the French were bad, only that they were wrong. [...] My subject is the sadness and laceration that the birth of a nation means in our time.” Undoubtedly, Pontecorvo, an Italian Jew who had previously been affiliated with the communist party and had fought as a partisan during World War II, did not garner favor among conservative circles.
Pontecorvo intricately wove together the technical aspects of the film, utilizing handheld cameras and black and white cinematography to convey an immediacy that plunges viewers into the heart of the conflict. The film's stark urban landscapes and the raw emotions etched on the faces of its characters are expertly framed, thanks to the cinematography of Marcello Gatti.
Gatti, the film's cinematographer, bore a leftist ideology and had endured imprisonment under Mussolini's dictatorship for defacing a portrait of Mussolini. With consummate skill, he adeptly captured the raw and captivating ambiance of the urban conflict portrayed in the film. His remarkable ability to navigate the labyrinthine, serpentine streets of Algiers and aptly depict the fervor of the clashes between the FLN and the French military heightened the film's tension.
Pontecorvo's approach to working with amateur actors is equally noteworthy. The performances of actors like Saadi Yacef, the aforementioned former FLN leader who portrays himself, are captivating in their authenticity. Pontecorvo's mastery in bestowing the film with the appearance of newsreel and documentary was so profound that American releases bore a disclaimer stating that "not one foot" of actual newsreel footage was utilized.
Jean Martin, a French actor who had only a modest number of screen credits to his name, was carefully selected by Pontecorvo to be the sole professional actor in the film, chosen for his relative obscurity and professional expertise. In his interactions with untrained performers, Martin occasionally faced challenges stemming from the disparity in experience. Pontecorvo, on the other hand, expressed apprehension regarding potential disparities in acting styles and their potential impact on the film's overall coherence. Nevertheless, Martin ultimately delivered a commanding portrayal as Colonel Mathieu, exuding the chilling resolve of the French military and effectively capturing the complexities of the conflict and the moral ambiguity surrounding the actions of the French military.
Indeed, Colonel Mathieu is the key figure of the movie and a complex anti-hero. Tasked by the French government with suppressing the Algerian uprising, he epitomizes the archetype of a resilient and seasoned professional soldier. Having earned his stripes as a veteran of the French Resistance, Mathieu exudes an unwavering demeanor devoid of any trace of irony. The film's most remarkable sequence revolves around Mathieu's commanding presence as he leads a triumphant parade along Algiers' main street. His intentions are twofold: to reassure loyal citizens of the French army's might in quashing the terrorists and to confront the terrorists themselves. With an air of casual ease, he radiates unwavering confidence, fully immersed in the spectacle he has orchestrated. Bathed in a dance of alternating shadows and sunlight, skillfully captured by Pontecorvo's masterful utilization of natural light, Mathieu's countenance becomes an indispensable component of the film's "newsreel" aesthetic.
Possibly the most cherished trivia about the movie is that it was screened at the Pentagon in 2003, prior to the invasion of Iraq. American generals were captivated by the film's unwavering candor in delving into subjects such as counter-terrorism, counter-insurgency, and the contentious employment of torture as a means of gathering information. General David Petraeus, who held command of the 101st Airborne Division at the time, lauded the film for its portrayal of the intricate complexities entailed in urban warfare and counterinsurgency. While this screening undoubtedly revitalized the film's iconic status, it appears that the attending officers failed to fully absorb Pontecorvo's profound insights, as evidenced by the course of the war in Iraq. Perhaps a revisiting of the film is in order for them.
"The Battle of Algiers" offers a cinematic odyssey that reaches far beyond its portrayal of the Algerian war. Its profound impact transcends the boundaries of that particular conflict, embracing a universal frame of reference that allows audiences to connect it to any war or struggle. The film's resonance stems from its profound ability to delve into timeless truths about the human condition and the harrowing ramifications of armed conflict, solidifying its status as a film of enduring relevance.
Pontecorvo's film has become such a powerful symbolic representation of the Algerian struggle that the untold stories of grassroots resistance can sometimes fade into the background, lost in obscurity. I'd like to suggest two more films which lack the laurels and recognition of the “Battle of Algiers” but shed light to lesser known aspects of the anti-colonial struggle in North Africa: “The Chronicle of the Years of Fire” and “The Lion of the Desert” (infamously funded by Libya's Colonel Gaddafy). If you're open to exploring movies that challenge your perspectives and offer historical insights, these two could be an interesting choice.
“The Chronicle of the Years of Fire” is an Algerian movie by Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina that won the Palme d’ Or in 1975: it shows the conflict through the eyes of a peasant while carefully depicting tribal life on the mountains of Algeria. “The Lion of the Desert” is an epic historical film directed by Moustapha Akkad with an impressive array of Hollywood stars, portraying the true story of Omar Mukhtar, a Bedouin leader who fought against Italian forces during the Italian colonization of Libya in the 1930s.
If interested in further discussing this film, you can join our Zoom discussion this Friday:
submitted by greece666 to TrueFilm [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:31 readingrachelx Housewife highlights/Daily shit talk - May 29th, 2023

Links to this week's episode discussion posts:
submitted by readingrachelx to RHDiscussion [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:30 PM_ME_OCELOTS New York

I'm in New York for a few weeks and wondering what good pencil shops there are? Obviously would have loved to visit CW, but alas.
Looking for iconic US pencils - Tennessee Reds, Golden Bear, Ticonderoga #2, etc.
submitted by PM_ME_OCELOTS to pencils [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:29 DaiLocDar WTC 7

1 - reconstruction of damage to the WTC 7 building (south facade) 2 - photo of the damaged building WTC 7 (south facade) ... a) about destruction: On September 11, 2001, the building was damaged by falling debris from the Mall's North Tower (at 10:28 am). When the North Tower collapsed, heavy debris damaged the south side of the building and caused a fire that lasted all day (from 10:28 to the collapse at 17:20) The collapse also damaged the southwest corner between the 7th and 17th floors and the south facade between the 44th floor and the roof; other possible structural damage included a large vertical gap in the center of the south wall between the 24th and 41st floors. Damage to the water supply system as a result of the fall of the towers disrupted the internal fire extinguishing system and prevented firefighters from effectively fighting the fire. After the North Tower collapsed, several firefighters entered 7 World Trade Center to search the building. They tried to put out small fires, but the low water pressure thwarted their efforts. During the day, fires flared out of control on several floors, with flames visible from the east side of the building. In the afternoon, fires were also observed on floors 6 to 10, 13 to 14, 19 to 22 and 29 to 30. In particular, fires on floors 7 to 9 and 11 to 13 continued to burn uncontrollably in the second half of the day. day. At around 2:00 pm, firefighters noticed a bulge in the southwest corner of the 7th World Trade Center between the 10th and 13th floors, a sign that the building was unstable and could collapse. In the afternoon, firefighters also heard creaking sounds coming from the building. At around 3:30 p.m., FDNY Chief of Operations Daniel A. Nigro decided to halt rescue operations and curtail all work inside/near the building and evacuate the area for personnel safety. The fire expanded the beams of the building, causing some of them to collapse. This caused the central column of the northeast corner (pillar 79), which was particularly large, to buckle below the 13th floor. This caused the floors above him to collapse onto the fifth level transition floor. The structure also developed cracks in the façade shortly before the entire building began to collapse. (A schematic view of the development of collapse with structural failure is indicated in the same article that I indicated in the source.). The total collapse time for the building is variously listed as 5:21:10 pm EST according to FEMA, and 5:20:52 pm EST according to NIST.
Conclusions: In May 2002, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) released a report on the collapse based on a preliminary investigation conducted in conjunction with the Institute of Structural Engineering of the American Society of Civil Engineers under the direction of Dr. W. Gene Corley, FEMA made preliminary conclusions that the collapse was not primarily caused by actual impact damage from the collapse of WTC 1 and 2, but by fires on multiple floors caused by the debris of the other two towers, which continued to burn unabated due to lack of water for sprinklers or manual firefighting. The report does not draw conclusions about the cause of the collapse and calls for further investigation. In November 2008, NIST released its final report on the causes of the collapse of 7 World Trade Center. This followed an August 21, 2008 NIST draft report that included a public comment period, and was followed in 2012 by a peer-reviewed summary in the Journal of Structural Engineering. In their investigation, NIST used ANSYS to model the events leading to collapse initiation and the LS-DYNA model to model the global response to the initiating events. whether there was structural damage from the collapse of the twin towers or transmission elements (trusses, beams and cantilevers). The lack of water to extinguish the fire was an important factor. ..............In the afternoon, the fires got out of control, causing the floor beams near column 79 to expand and push the key beam out of place, causing the floors around column 79 to collapse on floors 8 to 14. With loss of lateral support on nine floors. , column 79 buckled, pulling the east penthouse and nearby columns with it. Due to the deformation of these critical columns, the collapse then spread east to west along the core, eventually overloading the perimeter support, which caved in between the 7th and 17th floors, causing the remainder of the building above to collapse as a single unit. . The main reasons for the collapse were fires caused by office contents and lasting 7 hours, as well as the lack of water, the skyscraper collapsed from the fire. source:… ....... (I’ll add on my own: earlier I did NOT believe in such a “usual” and natural collapse of the 7th building. Now it looks logical to me, but meanwhile, I expect a wave of doubts from active adherents of the conspiracy theories )
b) about the history of construction: The original building of the shopping center had 47 floors, with a facade of red granite. It was designed by Emery Roth & Sons. The building was 190 m high. Its trapezoidal base was 100 m long and 43 m wide. The construction of the building was managed by Tishman Realty & Construction. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on October 2, 1984. The building opened in May 1987, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center. Building 7 of the World Trade Center was built over a two-story electrical substation owned by Con Edison that had been on the site since 1967. The substation had a coffered foundation designed to support the weight of the future 56,000 m² 25-story building. The final design for WTC Building 7 was much larger than originally planned for the construction of the substation.
c) about the double name of the building and tenants: In November 1988, Salomon Brothers abandoned plans to build a large new complex in Midtown's Columbus Circle and agreed to a 20-year lease on the top 19 floors of Building 7 of the World Trade Center. In 1989, the building was extensively renovated to meet the needs of Salomon Brothers. This led to an alternative name for the building, the Salomon Brothers building. "Basically, Salomon is building a building within a building - and it's an occupied building, which complicates things," the area manager for Silverstein Properties said.
submitted by DaiLocDar to 911archive [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:28 Groundhog891 Bill's May 28 update email-- No new movies until late July/Aug. They are currently rejecting spec movies for quality issues. They had to rework Belgian Chocolate's storyline. They are working on a Candace mystery.

Hello everyone,
I just wanted to update you on our programming plans and provide you with as much visibility into our process as possible. You have all been remarkably generous in taking time to reply to my emails, and I am grateful for, and humbled by, your incredible support.
Last week we announced some great news on the big picture front. We are thrilled to have entered into an agreement to merge with Pure Flix, a streaming platform that focuses on faith and family content. This new structure will allow us to produce more programming for you and expand the reach of our content. Because the deal is currently going through the FTC approval process, I cannot comment further, but I promise to be back to you in about three weeks once the agreement is official with more specifics on exactly what this means for you as a loyal viewer.
On the programming front, we are continuing to work hard at developing movies that reach a certain quality level and therefore are worth your time to watch. We have great appreciation for your commitment to us and we never want to disappoint. I believe we fell a little bit short in first quarter with some of our movies and we are working hard to premiere better product for the remainder of 2023 and beyond. To give you a sense of how seriously we are taking this commitment to quality content, we recently passed on an original movie because we did not believe you would thoroughly enjoy it, while our primary competitor acquired and aired the film a couple of weeks ago.
As a result of trying to create the best experience for you, while at the same time meeting our business needs, I want to let you know we will likely be holding our premieres back until late July or early August. Since this is a significant change and counter to my last email indicating we premiere new movies in June, I wanted you to hear about this directly from me. The silver lining here is we will be able to offer you a new movie every Saturday night throughout the remainder of the year once we get started this Summer. As an aside, we will have a Christmas in July premiere that we held from airing during Great American Christmas 2022 in order to rework the storyline as much as possible (feel free to read between the lines there and plan your viewing accordingly as the movie turned out “fine!”)
The production of our Christmas movie slate is in full swing! Candace’s Christmas movie is already produced, and we’ll once again have movies with Danica (Fall & Christmas), Jen Lilley (possibly TWO Christmas movies with her), Jill Wagner and many of your other favorite stars!
The last piece of news involves movies that many of you have expressed a passion for - cozy mysteries in the tradition of Aurora Teagarden. We have heard your requests loud and clear, and we are working with Candace and MPCA Productions on a few concepts that should be ready to premiere early in 2024. In addition, we may have a special surprise premiere at some point over the next couple of months in the mystery genre – it is not perfect, but I do believe you will enjoy it! While the publicity team will not be happy that I am getting out ahead of them with this news, I consider you all Great American Family “Family Insiders” and I’ll have to ask their forgiveness if word gets out!
Again, I want to thank you for your support and encouragement. It is highly motivating to the entire team at Great American Media, and I will never take it for granted!
submitted by Groundhog891 to GACFamily [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:26 mikwee A strategy for advancing pirate politics

I live in Israel, where the Pirate Party not only has never had any wins, but also doesn't seem to take itself seriously at all, as evident by their election ads. I have personally come to the conclusion that pirate politics offer the only real solutions to the issues I care about. The problem is, the Pirate Party is not succeeding in communicating to the public.
So I think a new direction is needed. I think pirate cells should be established in existing institutions, incl. other political parties, universities, and so on. That way, we could participate in mainstream politics and promote the policies we care about, and perhaps have our voices be heard. What do you think?
submitted by mikwee to PirateParty [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:26 Sloth_Alchemist Perfectionistic tendencies of the Inferior function

submitted by Sloth_Alchemist to isfj [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:22 Historical-Tart-4656 Looking for local or smaller shows in Burlington, VT

Recently moved up to the North Country in New York and there’s not a whole lot going on. Back home I’d be able to go to a smaller venue downtown on the weekend and be basically guaranteed someone would be playing. Don’t care about big names, local stuff is totally fine, really just looking to be back in the atmosphere. House shows aren’t really my thing. Any suggestions on places I could be looking in the Burlington area?
submitted by Historical-Tart-4656 to Hardcore [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:22 Salaris The Spark of Paths Untraveled

Hey, everyone. I posted a writing philosophy post on my blog today, and given the relevance to our subgenre, I figured I'd repost it here in case some people are interested. I expect this will be a controversial one -- it's definitely an area where my approach to writing differs from the norm -- but I hope that some readers find the insight on my perspective valuable, even if they don't actually agree with it.

The Spark of Paths Untraveled

A common element of writing philosophy is that authors should, as a general rule, only include content that serves the plot, the development of characters, or both. These authors tend to feel that other types of content — largely meaning scenes that are principally written for setting (or world building, as it’s often called) purposes — should only occur if they also serve the plot or development of the characters in some way.
I’m here to disagree with that approach.
There are several elements to why, but I’m going to focus primarily on a few main points that are important to the types of fiction that I tend to write.

Paths Untraveled

The foundation of my premise (not a cultivation joke, but you’re free to make it as one) is simple:
Things touched on within a story that the character does not actually end up exploring directly can add just as much (or more) value to a reader experience than what the character does explore.
This is going to sound incredibly counter-intuitive to some people, but probably won’t be as strange to anyone who is heavily involved in fanfiction communities and similar subcultures.
So, what am I talking about here, exactly?
Essentially, there are some specific scenes in novels that are written in a way that — through the intent of the author or otherwise — ignite the imagination about what could have happened if things went just a little bit differently.
Typically, these are most commonly scenes that involve clearly delineated “branches” that can lead to “what if” scenarios on the part of a reader. In my experience, there are very few things that ignite reader interest — and fandom interest in general — more than “what if this one story element went slightly differently?” This doesn’t have to be as direct as a choice. It can also, more rarely, simply be bits of information that provide context on areas of the setting that are never fully explored within canon. For example, a character might be shown explaining — or even using — an ability that is never seen again in a story, and their *lack* of using that ability can also be a point that sparks reader interest. (See: Kakashi opening the First Gate during an exposition scene in early Naurto, then never using it again.)
Now, this might sound like it has a lot to do with plot and character – and yeah, it often does. Things like, “What if Batman just killed the Joker?” is both a very common plot point to theorize about and a place to think about exploration of character development for what might occur in that scenario.
But there’s a category of “what if” style scenarios that principally focus on elements of world building or magic system exploration, and while those absolutely can intersect with things like characters and plot in some ways, they don’t necessarily need to.
A clear example of this?
My Arcane Ascension books include details about attunements that may never actually show up in the books.
I tend to go lighter on detail for things that aren’t likely to directly intersect with the main characters (in terms of plot or character development), and some of the attunements were mentioned earlier than their inclusion for the sake of foreshadowing when characters would show up with them later, but things like attunement descriptions for attunements that won’t show up help serve a few different types of “what if” scenarios —
What if one of the characters had ended up with, say, the Chronomancer attunement instead of what they had in the main story?
This type of content exists not only to provide extra world building details to make the world feel alive (which I feel has its own value), it also provides fans with more ideas to explore. And attunements are just the start of it — there are numerous types of content that, while absolutely not integral to the plot or the characters, add something to reader engagement for a certain type of reader. This is the reader that tends to think about these details and extrapolate into possibilities for other stories, to theorycraft, and, perhaps most commonly, a type of engagement I don’t think authors talk about enough —
The type of reader that wants to create their own character within a setting.
This is a hugely common aspect of fandom, above and beyond people who are out there making fanart and fanfic. Things like Judgements and other forms of determining your magic — or what faction you belong to, or your character class, or any number of other branching points — are massively important points of engagement for readers. (See any number of internet quizzes for what house you’d belong to in other fandoms, for example.)
These are what I call “spark scenes”, because they spark ideas on the parts of readers. Any scene a character could end up with one of many different rewards or punishments falls into this category.
There are numerous examples of what I consider to be “spark scenes”. Some examples include:

These are just some sample options; there are really a ton of ways to have elements of a scene that spark reader engagement without necessitating direct plot or character involvement.
Notably, these spark scenes often have greater value if there’s room for the reader to disagree with the main character’s decisions — and in order to do that in a way that can explored at beyond a cursory level, there needs to be a certain requisite amount of information provided.
Take the character class selection option, for example.
It’s very easy for an author to say, “Maria Suzette saw that she had ten class options, including fighter, mage, cleric, thief, bard, druid, ranger, monk, and paladin, but she chose the more obscure Ultimate God Master class, which no one else used because it had a reputation for being underpowered. No one could have possibly guessed that Ultimate God Master was actually a class with great potential!”
Comedy aside, a lot of LitRPGs start with this type of setup — maybe a little less blatant — or end up in a similar place with things like class and treasure selection.
In the scenario above, the main character is given choices, but there isn’t enough information to know if any of the other classes would interesting. There’s no spark here – it’s basically just laying out that the main character is picking a certain option, which is plot and character relevant, but there’s nothing much to explore on the fandom side. No one reading this premise is likely to be thinking, “Hey, wow, fighter sounds like it could be a particularly intriguing alternative to Ultimate God Master.”
(If you are, I commend your dedication to the fighter role.)
In the same sort of setup, though, if we’re willing to dedicate a bit more time to exploring the paths not traveled, we can put in some details on each other class — and, perhaps, make them a little more interesting as alternate options that someone in the fandom might actually think about wanting. If you really insist on including an Ultimate God Master class for your main character at all, consider that you can still have interesting alternatives on the same scale (Immortal Demon Emperor?) that could feel like viable alternatives.
Now, as a caveat to this, there’s an obvious argument that you can still have all these things and still tie them into plot and character. For example, if you include an Immortal Demon Emperor class as a counter option for the main character above that is their “path untraveled”, there are a couple obvious ways to make it relevant.
The first is to have the main character engage with that option in some way (e.g. think about it before making their choice). This can add to the spark value, since the main character engaging with it can encourage readers to think about it further.
The second is to have it show up again later in some way, e.g. the main character gets a rival with the Immortal Demon Emperor class.
I love both of these approaches, and I think they can add a ton — but I think one area where I differ from many of my writing contemporaries is that I do not actually think that they’re necessary.
The existence of the details themselves, when properly executed, can add value with nothing further being needed within that scene or otherwise. And it can add enough value that including these things is worth doing, in my opinion, even without intertwining them with anything else.

Using This Approach

Do I advise adding in these types of details — say, extra character class alternatives that sound cool that you never see again?
Not really. Not frequently. I don’t even tend to do that myself. Rather, if you look at something like the treasure vault scenes in Weapons & Wielders, I tend to do both of the extra things I mentioned above — I have my character think about the options (which is character exploration) and I have someone else choose them (which makes them potentially plot relevant).
There are, however, cases where I might deliberately include details specifically for the world building and spark effects — and those tend to be cases where I’m doing it specifically with the intention of giving readers ideas for what they might do for their own characters, or locations they might want to have adventures, or that sort of thing. And sometimes, it isn’t appropriate for me to have all those things incorporate a response from my character or future plot involvement. That is, to me, okay.
My principal point here isn’t actually “you should write scenes for setting/world building without any other purpose”. Rather, it’s that plot, character, and setting are typically seen as the three main reasons for writing content, and I would postulate that “spark” is effectively a fourth category that interacts with all of the others, and that the combination of setting and spark can be strong enough to warrant inclusion of details that may not ever be relevant to plot and character.
Scenes and content designed for reader engagement aren’t a new concept, of course. Fandom in particular is extremely familiar with the idea of certain types of content existing specifically to spur though and discussion — but usually, this tends to be in the context of things like character deaths, relationships, and other major things that *do* involve characters and plot. I like to go outside of that territory from time to time, hoping to give my readers things to think about in terms of how magic works, what items people could have picked up, the spells they could have researched, and that sort of thing.
Moderation, of course, has its own value. It’s also important to think about when and where you might be able to employ this type of content without being overly disruptive to pacing. There isn’t an easy way to adjudicate what “good” pacing is, especially in a genre like this one that draws in readers that have very different interests. For example, some readers are most heavily engaged with flashy fight scenes, and others skip them entirely. Likewise, scenes where I go into a bunch of minutia about how magic works bore some readers to tears, but they’re also the single most important scene type for the types of readers who get involved in discussions on Discord, etc. There’s no easy answer to this. I’ve experimented with several approaches and will continue to do so.
As one simple approach to help with pacing, I sometimes include this “spark” content over to things like appendices that are written in-character. This makes these a form of optional engagement for readers that are interested without necessarily bloating the story for other readers. This does have some critical downsides, though — anything in an appendix is going to be deliberately skipped by many readers (even ones who might enjoy it if they know it exists), and perhaps more importantly, it’s probably not going to be included in audiobook. A solid half or more of my readers get my books through audio format, so I have to be cognizant of that and can’t shovel too much of this into appendices or other forms of bonus materials.
So, is that the wrong approach? I don’t have a good answer to that — it’s going to be a good way to handle things for some readers, but not for others. As we see more readers migrating to audio, I think the appendices will be less useful, and I’ll need to prioritize including this type of thing in my main narrative without being disruptive. This is a tough balancing act, and it’s going to be something I continue to test and explore as I write more content in the future.
Now, like any writing opinions I’m going to offer, I need to place a gigantic reminder here that this is a component of my own writing philosophy, not every writer will agree with it, and there absolutely are downsides to including things without clear involvement with plot and character.
Even if certain readers are going to be engaged and start theory crafting when they see details on a bunch of different treasures in a scene that never show up again, or classes on a character class list, that’s not a reader experience that’s going to be universal, or even common. This level of extra detail is best used carefully and deliberately. I’ve personally been known to go overkill on these kinds of details, even for my own preferences, which tend to run very extreme in terms of preferring to see a lot of interesting options to think about.
I’ve had a lot of readers over the years who have been confused by the inclusion of certain content that “doesn’t go anywhere” in my books — and this is one majpr component of that. An (arguably larger) part is that I have a tendency to set up events too far in advance — there are things I’ve been setting up since Forging Divinity that readers won’t see the payoff for until I’ve written ten or more additional novels — so I don’t want it to sound like my books are inundated with things I write exclusively for worldbuilding and spark. But my interest in this kind of content that is designed for a certain type of reader engagement is a major component of my style, and you’ll definitely continue to see that in my stories. There’ll be more treasure vault scenes, more character class selection scenes, and maybe even an auction or two. And in all cases, I intend to include paths my characters will never take.
So that you can walk those paths yourself.
submitted by Salaris to ProgressionFantasy [link] [comments]

2023.05.29 13:22 Ebizfiling01 Limited Liability Company In the USA

Limited Liability Company In the USA
How to Form an LLC (Limited Liability Company) in the USA?- Find out its Characteristics, Advantages & Disadvantages of an LLC & Procedure.

Limited Liability Company in the USA (The United States of America)

The business trend in the United States is ever-changing. Newmarket trends, modern technologies and government policies make a big contribution to the changing business trends in the USA. With the changing market environment over the years, there has been an emergence of new business structures from time to time. In this article let us talk about one of such business structures i.e. Limited Liability Company (LLC) in the USA.
rules and regulations for Company registration in USA from INDIA are much more regularized, and corporate tax rates are much lower. Enlist any kind of Company within the USA from India with Ebizfiling.

What is a Limited Liability Company (LLC)?

Limited Liability Company i.e. LLC is a type of business structure that is a combination of a Corporation and a Partnership Firm. It is a business structure for Private Companies in the USA. LLC on one hand has the flexibility and tax benefits of Partnership Firms and Sole Proprietorships and on the other has limited liability status just like the Corporations.

Characteristics and Important facts of an LLC in the USA

  • The owners of an LLC are called as “Members”.
  • The rights and responsibilities of the members for managing the Limited Liability Company in the USA are governed by an operating agreement.
  • An LLC shall have to file a document called the Articles of Organization with the State Official, generally the Secretary of the State to get the legal status.
  • The Rules & Regulations of LLCs are different from state to state.
  • The members of an LLC can be any entity or individual other than banks and insurance companies.
  • Limited Liability Company does not have to pay taxes on their profits directly. Instead, LLC’s profit and losses are paid through the members who ultimately report them on their Individual Tax Returns.

Advantages of Limited Liability Companies ( LLCs) in USA

  • Limited Liability: The key reason business owners opt to register their businesses as Limited Liability Company is that their objective is to limit the personal liability of themselves and their partners or investors.
  • Flexibility: It is a well-known fact that an LLC is a mixture of a Corporation having liability protections and a Partnership that is believed to be a simple business agreement between two or more owners and hence can choose between tax regime of various business structures such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, S corporations, or C corporations.

Disadvantages of Limited Liability Companies ( LLCs) in the USA

Limited Liability Companies, apart from having some attractive features, LLCs have several disadvantages as below:
  • Regulations: As per the state law of the state where the LLC has been incorporated, an LLC may have to undergo dissolution if any of the members dies or goes bankrupt.
  • Taxes and Fees: Though owners of an LLC benefit by avoiding double-taxation, they are required to pay self-employment taxes. These taxes ultimately are paid twice as the owner of the LLC is both the employee and the employer.
  • Suitability: A Limited Liability Company may not be a suitable business structure if the founder’s or owner’s ultimate goal is to launch a publicly-traded company.

Procedure to start an LLC in the USA / How to Start an LLC in USA?

Select a State

The first step towards starting an LLC in the United States is to select a state. It is advisable to start an LLC in a state that has no state taxes, so that one only has to manage US Federal Taxes.
Although, if the business’s objective requires you to have offices or have a physical presence in a particular state, then it would be a necessity for you to have an LLC registered in that particular state only. This avoids requiring to form an LLC as a foreign LLC and hiring registered agents in multiple states.

Reserve the Name for your LLC in USA

The next step for forming an LLC in USA shall be to reserve the name for your Limited Liability Company. For reserving a name for your LLC, you shall search your secretary of state’s business directory to ensure that the LLC name that you want for your business is original and not taken by any other LLC. Your Limited Liability Company (LLC) cannot have the same name as an already existing LLC in the state where you are filing.

Hire a Registered Agent

The third step towards LLC incorporation in USA would be to hire a Registered Agent who would be responsible for receiving and corresponding all the legal as well as tax-related documents on behalf of an LLC. Keep in mind at the time of appointing a Registered Agent that he must be a resident of the USA or a corporation authorized for carrying out any business transactions in the USA.

File Certificate of Formation with Division of Corporations of the State

The next step would be to file the certificate of Incorporation of an LLC with the Division of Corporations of the state. This Certificate can be filed either by one’s own self online or via email. Once the Certificate of Formation of an LL is filed and accepted by the USA Division of Corporations, the LLC is considered to be officially incorporated.

USA LLC Operating Agreement

LLC OA (Operating Agreement) is not mandatory for a USA Limited Liability Company, but it is advisable to have one. An Operating Agreement is considered to be a legal document that states the provisions and rules of the ownership and operating procedures of an LLC. It reduces the risk of any future conflict between the business owners.

Get an LLC EIN

EIN stands for an Employer Identification Number which is a 9 digit number given by the Internal Revenue Service. Employer Identification Number is a Social Security Number for a business in the USA. An Employer Identification Number (EIN) is required for opening a business bank account, filing and managing Federal and State Taxes and also it is required while hiring employees.

Documents required for LLC Incorporation in USA

  • Legal Name of Partners
  • Percentage of partnership for each partner
  • A Certified Copy of Passport
  • Existing Foreign Tax Id Number (Pan Card)
  • Original Voter ID Card and Driving License (Incase Certified Passport is not available)

FAQs on Limited Liability Company in the USA

What is an LLC?

Limited Liability Company i.e. LLC is a type of a business structure that is a combination of a Corporation and a Partnership Firm. It has a both flexibility of Partnership Firms and limited liability just like the Corporations.

Are Limited Liability Companies Taxed Differently Than Corporations?

Yes. While in a corporation system of “Double Taxation” prevails, i.e. to say that in Corporations first profits are taxed at the corporate level and then taxed a second time once those profits are distributed to the individual shareholders.
LLCs, on the other hand, allow the profits to be passed directly to the investors so that they are taxed only once, as part of the investors’ personal income.

How to start an LLC in the USA?

Well, it is an easy process to start an Limited Liability Company in the USA. Following are the steps for registering an LLC in the USA:
  • Select a State and Reserve a name for your LLC
  • Hire a Registered Agent
  • File Certificate of Formation / Incorporation for LLC
  • Prepare LLC Operating Agreement
  • Obtain LLC EIN

In what state should I form an LLC?

Usually, a Limited Liability Company is incorporated according to the requirements of the state laws, one has to decide what state his/her LLP should be formed and organized in. However, it is often seen that Delaware is chosen because of it’s well-developed state law. Nonetheless, one should always choose a state for forming an LLC considering the factors like Fees, Filing Obligations and Complexities of the laws in the state.
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2023.05.29 13:20 Lopsided_Winter_4031 Rare PRF complication or too early to tell?

I got PRF under my eyes for the first time in London on Thursday morning. Eyes were puffy as expected afterward for 2 ish days but now they are no longer swollen (great!) but left behind is almost a blueish tint under my eyes (not great!) which I did not have before (I got PRF as a preventative measure and for creepy skin/mini wrinkles — I never really had issues with dark circles thankfully. Eyes had started to hollow a bit because I’m 32 now but it was slight and I was told to avoid fillers at all cost because I don’t have a lot of volume loss and the risks outweigh the benefits.)
Now I’m a bit worried these new dark circles will become permanent. Did anyone else have this affect? Did it go away over time? All I hear is how prf has brightened people’s under eyes and helped with skin texture under there…I never imagined it would be the reverse for me and give me a sorta black eye…I have really fair skin so it’s very prominent at the moment.
I don’t have any bruising at the injection site points…but maybe this is an under the skin eye bruise because my eye isn’t used to having lots of liquid injected there? I get Botox sorta near there under the eyes regularly but it never bruises so idk.
I also am aware maybe I’m freaking out for no reason because it’s a normal thing that’s supposed to happen…but I’ve never heard anyone mention darkening of under eyes only swelling in the first week after the injection.
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